File Name: journal of colonialism and colonial history .zip
This book explores the theme of violence, repression and atrocity in imperial and colonial empires, as well as its representations and memories, from the late eighteenth through to the twentieth century. It examines the wide variety of violent means by which colonies and empire were maintained in the modern era, the politics of repression and the violent structures inherent in empire.
- Journal of Early American History
- The Economics of Colonialism in Africa
- The Palgrave Handbook of African Colonial and Postcolonial History
- Violence, Colonialism and Empire in the Modern World
Journal of Early American History
Although the details vary in the retelling, one Philippine creation myth focuses on this core element: a piece of bamboo, emerging from the primordial earth, split apart by the beak of a powerful bird. From the bamboo a woman and man come forth, the progenitors of the Filipino people. The genesis of the Philippine nation, however, is a more complicated historical narrative. During their sixteenth-century expansion into the East, Ferdinand Magellan and other explorers bearing the Spanish flag encountered several uncharted territories.
Under royal decree, Spanish colonizers eventually demarcated a broad geographical expanse of hundreds of islands into a single colony, thus coalescing large groups of cultural areas with varying degrees of familiarity with one another as Las Islas Filipinas.
Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, claiming this area for the future King Philip II of Spain in the mids, took possession of the islands while imagining the first borders of the future Philippine state. During Spanish rule, the boundaries of the empire changed as Spain conquered, abandoned, lost, and regained several areas in the region. Had other colonies been maintained or certain battles victorious, Las Islas Filipinas could have included, for example, territory in what is now Borneo and Cambodia.
The issue of shifting boundaries notwithstanding, the modern-day cartographic image of the Philippine archipelago as a unified whole was credited to Jesuit priest Pedro Murillo Velarde, Francisco Suarez, and Nicolas de la Cruz who, in , conceptualized, sketched, and engraved the first accurate map of the territory.
Explorers for Spain were not the first to encounter the islands. Chinese, Arabic, and Indian traders, for example, engaged in extensive commerce with local populations as early as AD. Yet it was the Spanish government that bound thousands of islands under a single colonial rule.
The maps delineating Las Islas Filipinas as a single entity belied the ethnolinguistic diversity of the area. Although anthropological investigations continue, scholars believe Spain claimed territory encompassing over cultural, ethnic, and linguistic groups. Within this colonial geography, however, Spain realized that the actual distance between the capital center of Manila and areas on the margins as well as the very real problems with overcoming difficult terrain between communities made ruling difficult.
Socially and geographically isolated communities retained some indigenous traditions while experiencing Spanish colonial culture in varying degrees. Instead of unifying the diverse local populations under one banner during the almost years of Spanish rule, various groups remained fiercely independent or indifferent to the colonizer; some appropriated and reinterpreted Spanish customs, 2 while others toiled as slaves to the empire. As they spread throughout the islands, Spanish conquistadors encountered a variety of religions; during the sixteenth century, the areas now referred to as the Luzon and Visayas cluster of islands were home to several belief systems that were chronicled by the Christian friars and missionaries who came into contact with them.
Christianity redefined the worldview and relationships of some of the locals, implementing a social structure heavily based on Biblical perspectives and injunctions. By the eighteenth century, indigenous people caught practicing so-called pagan rituals were punished; local histories written on bamboo or other materials were burned, and cultural artifacts were destroyed.
Church edifices dominated the landscape as the symbolic and psychological center of the permanent villages and towns that sprung up around them. Once firmly established, the Catholic Church, through various religious orders with their own agendas, clearly shared power with Spain, and the two jointly administered the colonization of the islands. However, Spanish Catholic colonial rule was incomplete. Domination of the southern half of the archipelago proved impossible due in large part to the earlier introduction of Islam in approximately Muslim traders traveled in and around the southern islands, and over time, these merchants likely married into wealthy local families, encouraging permanent settlements while spreading Islam throughout the area.
By the time of Spanish arrival in the sixteenth century, the Islamic way of life was already well-established; for example, the Kingdom of Maynila site of present-day Manila was ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim who fought against Spanish conquest. Scholars agree that the Spanish arrival profoundly affected the course of Philippine history.
Had Magellan or other colonizers never arrived or landed much later, they may have encountered a unified Muslim country. As history would have it, however, Spain encountered serious resistance in the Filipinas south, sowing the seeds of one of the oldest and bitterest divisions in contemporary Philippine society. Spanish colonizers soon realized they were against a strong, although not entirely uniform or unified, Muslim people.
The constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and Spanish. From the late s until the late s, Spain attempted to gain a foothold in the area— succeeding only to the extent that some soldiers were eventually allowed by local leaders to maintain a small military presence.
Spanish colonial leaders, however, never dominated or governed the local area, despite laying claim to the territory. During the late eighteenth century, revolutionaries such as Gabriela and Diego Silang fought for a free Ilocano nation in the northern Philippines. Rizal, born to a relatively prosperous family of Filipino, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese descent, was well-educated in the Philippines and in parts of Europe.
A true renaissance man, Rizal was an ophthalmologist, scientist, writer, artist, and multilinguist whose works were written in several languages, including Spanish and Latin. In , Rizal was arrested and convicted of several crimes, including inciting rebellion, and was executed by firing squad on December His works, once considered seditious propaganda by some, are now available as free downloads.
He is remembered as a Filipino writing for his people, a native son who used the tools of storytelling to expose the truth about life under colonial rule.
Scholars argue that the execution of Rizal inspired a broader fight for freedom from the Spanish government. Led by heroes such as Bonifacio, the Philippine Revolution began in and included numerous battles against Spanish forces on multiple fronts. By , as Spain was fighting to quell the uprisings in the Philippines, it became embroiled in the Spanish-American War.
During the negotiation of the treaty, the American Anti-Imperialist League opposed the annexation of the Philippines. I have read carefully the Treaty of Paris, and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way.
And so I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land. The treaty was hotly debated by the Senate. Ultimately, ratification of the treaty was approved on February 6, , by a vote of fifty-seven in favor and twenty-seven against—a single vote more than the required twothirds majority. Meanwhile in the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino leader in the fight for freedom, declared an independent Philippine government—which neither the Spanish nor United States governments acknowledged.
When the final version of the Treaty of Paris was enacted, the islands once again became subject to the laws and policies of another distant nation.
Americans who supported annexing the Philippines viewed the archipelago as a doorway through which the United States could gain more of a financial foothold in Asia while extending its empire overseas. Before the US could begin fully establishing control of the islands, a new war began.
In the first years of US occupation, the battles were fought between the new US colonizers and Filipino guerrilla armies tired of existing under any foreign rule. Under the rule of the United States, a plethora of people, ideas, and changes to the infrastructure flooded the archipelago. During this era, Christian groups flourished as Protestants and other denominations began proselytizing via missionary expeditions. The United States military sponsored the establishment of hospitals and funded improvements to roads and bridges.
Prominent urban planner Daniel Burnham visited the Philippines in and designed the capital city of Manila for redevelopment.
Linguist Bonifacio P. Throughout the business and government sector, English became the dominant language, as well as the language that bridged communication gaps between regional Filipino cultural groups who did not share an indigenous language. Today, English, along with Filipino, is recognized as a national language of the Philippines.
This was the beginning of their education, and at the same time, their miseducation. The US government sponsored some students from the elite upper class to study in American schools and, upon their return, work in the government. With at least some familiarity with the language, Filipinos were able to communicate with their foreign employers. In , the United States designated the Philippines as a commonwealth and established a Philippine government that was meant to transition to full independence.
Lydia N. Others were permanent settlers, many of whom would go on, for example, to establish agricultural operations, open factories, and begin logging operations. Some of these Japanese business owners, Yu-Jose explains, were utilized as advisers and installed as local leaders by the occupying army.
Initially, some regarded the Japanese as liberators, freeing the Philippines from the United States and bringing the islands into the Japanese empire. However, in light of the subsequent war atrocities, harsh realities came to light. Laurel as president. Widely recognized as simply a puppet government, the dominating Japanese military continued occupying the area.
Local factories under Japanese control produced goods for the war effort while Filipinos suffered food shortages. Against this backdrop, Filipinos once again organized widespread resistance throughout the islands. Over , people used guerrilla warfare tactics against Japanese occupiers, who steadily lost control as the war continued.
From February to March , Filipino soldiers and US troops fought in the Battle of Manila, which would eventually mark the end of the occupation. During this month, at least , civilians died at the hands of Japanese soldiers. Overall, scholars estimate between , and one million deaths of Filipinos during the World War II Japanese occupation. The political, social, and economic elites of the country, for example, are often members of the same families that have held power in the country for generations.
Many of these families later leveraged their power into political and economic dynasties, leading to a contemporary Philippine government mired in nepotism, cronyism, and corruption. After war reparations were paid in the s, Japanese businesses and investors soon returned to the islands. Today, Japan is a strategic economic and political partner of the Philippine government. However, as in the aftermath of Spanish and United States colonialism, Filipinos still struggle with defining a national identity after such widespread traumas.
Legislative Branch: Bicameral Congress; Senate twenty-four seats, half of the seats are elected every three years, elected by popular vote, serving six-year terms and House of Representatives seats, all seats elected by popular vote every three years, serving three-year terms. Judges: Appointed by president on recommendations by the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until age seventy.
Religion: Security: The Philippine government has been dealing with insurgent groups throughout the past couple of decades. The Philippines and China are also in a dispute over sovereignty for the Spratly Islands.
Drugs: The Philippines are a major consumer and producer of methamphetamines, as well as a producer of marijuana. The government has attempted crackdowns on both but has been unsuccessful so far.
Rosario M. Cortes, Celestina P. Boncan, and Ricardo T. McCoy et al. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, Excerpt from the October 15, New York Herald. Bonifacio P. See Laura M.
The Economics of Colonialism in Africa
We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions.
The Palgrave Handbook of African Colonial and Postcolonial History
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The Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in and devoted to research in the relatively new field of colonial studies. The journal is aimed at a wide variety of scholars concerned with the history and social and political impact of colonialism and imperialism. The journal covers pre-, post-, and colonial periods as well as controversial questions related to the transition to independence.
Violence, Colonialism and Empire in the Modern World
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This wide-ranging volume presents the most complete appraisal of modern African history to date. It assembles dozens of new and established scholars to tackle the questions and subjects that define the field, ranging from the economy, the two world wars, nationalism, decolonization, and postcolonial politics to religion, development, sexuality, and the African youth experience. Contributors are drawn from numerous fields in African studies, including art, music, literature, education, and anthropology. The themes they cover illustrate the depth of modern African history and the diversity and originality of lenses available for examining it. The result is a comprehensive, vital picture of where the field of modern African history stands today.
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Table of contents
A perennial debate casts European rule as either modernizing previously largely static African economies or, in contrast, as retarding their development both at the time and, via institutional path dependence, ever since. Both approaches understate the continuities in factor endowment before and during colonial rule; the importance of the differences between types of colony; and the significance of African responses to the constraints and opportunities of what proved to be the relatively short period of alien rule. This chapter examines colonial interventions in relation to long-term trajectories of economic development in Africa. Keywords: economic history , colonialism , development , factor ratios , institutions , property rights , resource endowments. A perennial debate casts European rule as either modernizing previously largely static African economies or, in contrast, as retarding their development both at the time and, via institutional path dependence, ever since Gann and Duignan ; Rodney ; Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson
Although the details vary in the retelling, one Philippine creation myth focuses on this core element: a piece of bamboo, emerging from the primordial earth, split apart by the beak of a powerful bird. From the bamboo a woman and man come forth, the progenitors of the Filipino people. The genesis of the Philippine nation, however, is a more complicated historical narrative. During their sixteenth-century expansion into the East, Ferdinand Magellan and other explorers bearing the Spanish flag encountered several uncharted territories. Under royal decree, Spanish colonizers eventually demarcated a broad geographical expanse of hundreds of islands into a single colony, thus coalescing large groups of cultural areas with varying degrees of familiarity with one another as Las Islas Filipinas. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, claiming this area for the future King Philip II of Spain in the mids, took possession of the islands while imagining the first borders of the future Philippine state. During Spanish rule, the boundaries of the empire changed as Spain conquered, abandoned, lost, and regained several areas in the region.
African Economic Development and This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.