File Name: modernisation and dependency theories of development .zip
Dependency theory , an approach to understanding economic underdevelopment that emphasizes the putative constraints imposed by the global political and economic order.
- Modernization Theory
- 9.3 Explaining Global Stratification
- A critique of modernization and dependency theories in Africa: critical assessment
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Matunhu Published Sociology. The way states and development specialists rationalize how to commit economic resources to development is influenced, to a greater extent by their level of persuasion towards specific development theories. The conclusion is that both theories have failed to help develop Africa. The discourse pins hope on the African Renaissance theory of development.
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9.3 Explaining Global Stratification
Prebisch and his colleagues were troubled by the fact that economic growth in the advanced industrialized countries did not necessarily lead to growth in the poorer countries. Indeed, their studies suggested that economic activity in the richer countries often led to serious economic problems in the poorer countries. Such a possibility was not predicted by neoclassical theory, which had assumed that economic growth was beneficial to all Pareto optimal even if the benefits were not always equally shared. Prebisch's initial explanation for the phenomenon was very straightforward: poor countries exported primary commodities to the rich countries who then manufactured products out of those commodities and sold them back to the poorer countries. The "Value Added" by manufacturing a usable product always cost more than the primary products used to create those products. Therefore, poorer countries would never be earning enough from their export earnings to pay for their imports. Prebisch's solution was similarly straightforward: poorer countries should embark on programs of import substitution so that they need not purchase the manufactured products from the richer countries.
Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Matunhu Published Sociology. The way states and development specialists rationalize how to commit economic resources to development is influenced, to a greater extent by their level of persuasion towards specific development theories. The conclusion is that both theories have failed to help develop Africa.
A critique of modernization and dependency theories in Africa: critical assessment
Explanations of global stratification parallel those of U. One type of explanation takes an individual approach by in effect blaming the people in the poorest nations for their own poverty, while a second explanation takes a structural approach in blaming the plight of poor nations on their treatment by the richest ones. Again there is evidence to support both types of explanations, but many sociologists favor the structural explanation.
In International Political Economy, there are competing theoretical perspectives regarding the question of global inequalities and the North-South divide. The aim of this essay is to examine how traditional dependency theory, which was popular in the s and s as a criticism of modernization theory, can still be a useful tool for explaining global inequalities despite the challenges of the 21 st century. For instance, there were some who supported and agreed with the solution for creating more global equality in a socialist revolution inspired by Marxism, while others favored reforms in the international economic system Herath , p.
While the three main sociological paradigms all help explain global stratification, there are two major theories that developed out of the structural-functional and conflict theories that are best positioned to explain global inequality: modernization theory and dependency theory. Modernization theory posits that countries go through evolutionary stages and that industrialization and improved technology are the keys to forward progress. Dependency theory, on the other hand, sees modernization theory as Eurocentric and patronizing.
Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту. Итальянец посмотрел на деньги, потом на свою спутницу. Девушка схватила деньги и сунула их в вырез блузки. - Grazie! - просиял итальянец.