Environmental Pollution Of Iron And Steel Industry Pdf

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The steel industry is facing problems such as serious environmental pollution and high resource consumption. At the same time, it lacks effective methods to quantify potential environmental impacts.

Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental Impact of Steelmaking Process

The steel industry is facing problems such as serious environmental pollution and high resource consumption. At the same time, it lacks effective methods to quantify potential environmental impacts.

The purpose of this work is to conduct a specific environmental analysis of steelmaking production in steel plants. The ultimate goal is to discover the main pollution of steelmaking and identify potential options for improving the environment. This paper uses life cycle assessment method to carry out inventory and quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of steelmaking system. Through analysis, the hazards are divided into four major categories, which are human health, climate change, ecosystem quality, and resources.

The results show that molten iron has the greatest impact on human health, followed by the greatest impact on resources. The impact of scrap steel on human health ranks third. Molten iron is a key process that affects human health, climate change, ecosystems quality, and resources. In addition, processes such as fuels, working fluids, and auxiliary materials also cause certain environmental damage, accounting for a relatively small proportion.

Optimizing the utilization of scrap steel and molten iron resources and improving the utilization efficiency of resources and energy are helpful to reduce the environmental hazards of steelmaking system. The iron and steel industry is a pillar industry of the national economy and an energy-intensive industry. In the past three decades, crude steel production has more than doubled, reaching This productivity inevitably imposes an environmental burden on the steelmaking sector.

Therefore, the steelmaking process must be analysed in order to have a clear understanding of the main environmental impacts and may involve the implementation of circular economy solution.

However, the studies mentioned above fail to elucidate the upstream and downstream impacts, whereas life cycle assessment LCA is a method of summarizing and evaluating the potential environmental impacts of all inputs and outputs of a system of products or services throughout its life cycle. LCA is evaluated based on the contribution of the production process to the environment, including categories such as global warming potential GWP , land acidification, land occupation, respirable organic, and human toxicity.

Therefore, LCA can identify the unit processes with the greatest impact on the environment for targeted improvements [ 2 ]. Some studies have also been conducted on life cycle assessment of the steel industry worldwide.

In a comprehensive study, [ 4 ] compared the effects of different steels slabs, hot-rolled, cold-rolled, hot-dip galvanized, and electrogalvanized steel on fossil fuels, global warming potential, ecotoxicity, minerals, carcinogens, and respiratory inorganics; the results show that the hot-dip galvanized steel sheet has the greatest impact.

In a recent study, [ 5 ] has developed a water footprint calculation model and calculated the water footprint of steel from the perspective of life cycle assessment. These data show that the steel plant poses a serious hazard to the water environment. Bieda conducted an inventory analysis on the blast furnace of an integrated steel plant in Krakow, Poland, and collected and sorted out the input and output list of the blast furnace [ 6 ].

Including sinter, limestone, etc. The operating parameters, air pollutant discharge, and heavy metal discharge are given. Bieda performed an analysis of the continuous casting process at the Krakow comprehensive steel plant in Poland, which included not only energy consumption, fuel, materials, and waste but also operational data such as dust, iron, PM 10 , and waste [ 7 ]. This is the basis of life cycle assessment analysis. Korol [ 8 ] conducted a life cycle assessment of Polish steel production by integrating steel production.

The study pointed out that in the integrated steel production routes the production of pig iron in blast furnaces has the greatest impact on greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption, and the sintering process of iron ore is the biggest cause of dust.

The substitution of raw materials in the iron making process can effectively reduce the impact of the steel industry on the environment. Manfred comprehensively studies the current evaluation methods impact on resources and points out that it needs to be improved [ 9 ].

The three key issues in resource sustainability assessment are renewability, recyclability, and criticality. The model in this study has different representations of the impact on resource depletion and points out the differences in different resource types and scales. Liu used the life cycle assessment method to analyse 12 major iron ore mines and major steel producers, calculated the production intensity per unit of GDP, and finally proposed the problem of pollution distribution among international trade participants [ 10 ].

He pointed out that ecotoxicity is the most serious consequence in the steel production chain, which is not negligible compared with the impact of carbon emissions; he also pointed out that importing countries benefiting from pollution-free materials should share the environmental pollution caused by steel processing by trading partners.

In the above studies, the idea of life cycle assessment method is used, but due to different basis, the results are still not comparable.

In addition, the impact categories considered in these studies cannot be compared with each other. Therefore, this study aims to make an accurate environmental analysis of a steel production in Shandong, China, and find out the improvement process.

It uses specific scene data on-site to conduct LCA assessment of steel production in steel plants. The organization of this article is as follows: the next section explains the main LCA methods and inventories. Section 3 explains the results of the environmental impact assessment.

In the last part, the results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. The complete life cycle of a product is usually divided into the following stages [ 11 ]: 1 cradle to entry raw material extraction and refining ; 2 factory door to factory door product manufacturing ; and 3 factory door to grave product use, recycling, and disposal. After feeding, insert the oxygen spray gun into the furnace from the top of the furnace and blow in oxygen to make it directly oxidize with the hot molten iron to remove impurities.

When the composition and temperature of the molten steel meet the requirements, the steel can be tapped. All the materials and energy consumed by the production equipment involved in the process of steelmaking from the molten iron entering the steelmaking station, smelting into molten steel through the converter, and leaving the converter are taken into account.

A ton of crude steel is used as the functional unit of the present study, in order to provide life cycle inventory LCI and all the results of quantitative standards [ 11 ].

The boundary definition of the steelmaking system in this study is shown in Figure 1. Scrap steel, molten iron, and waste treatment are involved i. Each process considers the input of raw materials, transportation, energy generation, and consumption for example, coal-based electricity, coal, and coke , direct waste emissions for example, dust, nickel, SO 2 , and NO x , and land occupation.

Inventory analysis uses a survey model to collect and classify the raw materials, transportation, energy, infrastructure, direct discharge, and waste disposal in different steps of each process. The life cycle list of molten steel products is shown in Table 1. The steps of life cycle impact assessment are characterization, damage assessment, normalization, and single scoring.

In this way, you can not only see the impact value of the midpoint category, but also intuitively see the final impact on the environment [ 15 ].

Table 2 lists the life cycle inventory assessment LCIA midpoint results based on functional units. According to climate change, the midpoint of LCIA for the production of 1 ton of molten steel is In order to compare the different impact categories of each midpoint and analyse the impact of each midpoint type on the overall situation, this study conducted a normalized analysis.

The normalized midpoint results of each functional unit are shown in Figure 2. Two situations are considered: normal production and clean production. The difference is the ratio of scrap steel and molten iron in the production process. The cleaner production scene uses more steel scrap and less molten iron.

It is worth noting that in both cases, the waste disposal method is assumed to be the same. In the environmental impact category, especially nonrenewable resources, respiratory inorganics, toxicity of aquatic organisms, and terrestrial ecotoxicity, the scene of normal production is significantly higher than the scene of cleaner production. These findings may be attributed to the fact that normal production requires more molten iron, which requires more fuel and ore, which will inevitably produce more waste water, waste gas, and slag during the treatment process.

It also shows that recycling of scrap steel is a more scientific production method. Table 3 and Figure 3 show the life cycle evaluation endpoint of the steelmaking system, which is obtained by classifying and weighing all intermediate damage types. It can be seen from Figure 3 that molten iron, scrap steel, and auxiliary materials have a greater impact on the environment.

Among them, molten iron has a greater damage value to natural resources, human health, and the ecological environment. The damage value of scrap steel to human health is greater. It can be seen from Figure 3 that steel scrap and molten iron still have the greatest impact, which is basically consistent with the results [ 16 ]. The impact of auxiliary materials and working fluids on the environment is second, and the impact of electricity and fuel is negligible.

According to the results of normalization evaluation, the most important potential environmental impacts during the entire life cycle of molten steel products are noncarcinogens, nonrenewable energy, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, respiratory organics, carcinogens, and aquatic ecotoxicity. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and analyse the key processes that cause the above environmental impacts, so as to put forward relevant recommendations. On the basis of the evaluation results of the midpoint in the life cycle, the key processes are identified, and the results are shown in Figure 4.

It also has a significant impact on global warming and breathing organic matter. At the same time, the contribution of electricity to nonrenewable energy and aquatic ecotoxicity cannot be ignored. Based on the identification of main processes, this study also identifies the main substances in each main influence category, so as to put forward relevant opinions on the consumption of certain substance or pollutant discharge.

This study identified the four key substances of environmental impact types in the endpoint evaluation, and the results are shown in Figure 5. Figure 5 shows the specific substances that contribute significantly to each major environmental category and their contribution rates. Coke and coal are the two substances that have the greatest impact on the ecosystem. It can be seen that the two are not clean production methods, and the proportion of clean energy should be increased.

Coke ore produces a large amount of carbon oxides, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides during the smelting process, which has a greater adverse impact on the climate.

The development of clean energy is of great significance for the reduction of environmental impact in the steelmaking process. Sensitivity analysis is a key part of LCA testing the sensitivity of LCI input data, which can be calculated [ 17 ] based on the percentage adjustment rule of input and output parameters ISO , ; ISO , Table 4 lists the results of the sensitivity analysis of the main contributors, aiming to determine the main impact on the LCIA results obtained in this study.

For other scenarios and categories, similar analysis can be made using the sensitivity results shown in Table 4. The three main processes have the greatest impact on nonrenewable energy, global warming effect, and soil acidification. Among them, changes in molten iron have the greatest overall impact on the environment, followed by scrap steel and electricity. It can be seen that reducing the use of molten iron and developing cleaner steel production can effectively reduce environmental pollution.

Table 5 shows the probability comparison of different scenes performed using Monte Carlo simulation. A similar situation can be observed from the uncertainty analysis results shown in Table 5. In general, except for carcinogens and land eutrophication, in most categories, cleaner production scenarios have the lowest environmental burden. Its environmental load mainly comes from nonrenewable energy, respirable inorganic substances, and aquatic ecotoxicity.

In contrast, the impact of auxiliary materials and working fluids is small, and the environmental impact of electricity and fuel is the smallest. Comparing the environmental loads of different processes can also provide a scientific basis for decision makers and lay a foundation for product ecological design and cleaner production. Of course, since the current research history of life cycle environmental impact assessment is not long, its methodology system is not perfect, there are many differences in the research of scholars in various countries, and there are few application fields in China, so there must be some limitations, such as the variability of the source of the life cycle inventory different production processes of the same product ; the uncertainty of the model used such as the migration and transformation of pollutants in the environment is simplified through the multimedia model ; the uncertainty of the selection in the life cycle analysis for example, which allocation method and system boundary are used , etc.

However, the life cycle environmental impact assessment LCEA provides a preliminary analysis of the energy and environmental problems in steel production and provides a good scientific basis for optimizing the development of the industry. Therefore, it is necessary to learn from the experience of international application of life cycle assessment method, accelerate its promotion and application, and truly realize the service for sustainable development.

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental Impact of Steelmaking Process

Iron ore is converted into various types of iron through several processes. Pig iron has only limited uses, and most of this iron goes on to a steel mill where it is converted into various steel alloys by further reducing the carbon content and adding other elements such as manganese and nickel to give the steel specific properties. Coke is produced from coal. It is then removed from the oven and cooled before use in the blast furnace. The coal gas produced during carbonisation is collected and used as a fuel in the manufacturing process while by-products such as tar, benzole and sulphur are extracted for further refining.

Handbook of Environmental Materials Management pp Cite as. In the iron and steel production over world, China takes the first place, and Japan and USA follow it. Turkey, with a In Europe there are declared targets of the European Community aimed to protect the environment and to improve its quality, to serve the protection of the human health, and to guarantee a cautious and efficient use of the natural resources. In this framework, steel companies are becoming increasingly aware about the sustainability challenges, in order to satisfy such requirements and to increase their competitiveness through an adequate management of resource and energy.

Pollution and control in steel industry

Metrics details. The study has the objective to contribute to the existing literature on the health risks associated with fine particle pollution PM2. We collected data about the health conditions of participant subjects in two ways: a medical history questionnaires and b clinical assessment of respiratory function through spirometry testing. The results were evaluated based on comparative studies. This incidence rate is between six and two times higher than those reported in similar studies carried out in other countries which range between 4.

The world produces a lot of steel - over kilos for every single person in the world every year. About million tons in total. But the environmental impact of steel is enormous. Steel production is one of the most energy-consuming and CO2 emitting industrial activities in the world. The world produces enough steel to build an Eiffel Tower every 3 minutes.

Filtering, Control, and Optimization of Distributed Networked Systems

Чатрукьян вдруг обрел прежнюю уверенность. - Цепная мутация, сэр. Я проделал анализ и получил именно такой результат - цепную мутацию. Теперь Сьюзан поняла, почему сотрудник систем безопасности так взволнован. Цепная мутация. Она знала, что цепная мутация представляет собой последовательность программирования, которая сложнейшим образом искажает данные.

До сих пор Дэвиду Беккеру необыкновенно везло, и не следует и дальше искушать судьбу. Пиджак защитного цвета от него отделяли теперь уже только десять человек. Беккер шел, низко опустив голову. Халохот прокручивал в голове дальнейшие события. Все было очень просто: подойдя к жертве вплотную, нужно низко держать револьвер, чтобы никто не заметил, сделать два выстрела в спину, Беккер начнет падать, Халохот подхватит его и оттащит к скамье, как друга, которому вдруг стало плохо. Затем он быстро побежит в заднюю часть собора, словно бы за помощью, и в возникшей неразберихе исчезнет прежде, чем люди поймут, что произошло. Пять человек.

Steel production & environmental impact

Беккер, шедший по залу в направлении выстроившихся в ряд платных телефонов, остановился и оглянулся. К нему приближалась девушка, с которой он столкнулся в туалетной комнате. Она помахала ему рукой. - Подождите, мистер.

Никогда. Внезапная пустота, разверзшаяся вокруг него, была невыносима. Сьюзан равнодушно смотрела на ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Он что-то говорил, но сквозь звуконепроницаемую перегородку слов не было слышно. У него был такой вид, словно он только что увидел привидение. - Какого черта здесь нужно Чатрукьяну? - недовольно поинтересовался Стратмор.

Steel production & environmental impact

Звуки шли сверху. Он поднял глаза на видеомониторы, и у него закружилась голова. Одна и та же картинка смотрела на него со всех двенадцати мониторов наподобие какого-то извращенного балета. Вцепившись руками в спинку стула, Бринкерхофф в ужасе смотрел на экраны.

 Отчаянный парень, - пробормотал Хейл себе под нос. Он знал, что задумал Чатрукьян. Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус.

Сьюзан пыталась отстраниться, но он не отпускал. ТРАНСТЕКСТ задрожал, как ракета перед стартом. Шифровалка содрогалась. Стратмор сжимал ее все сильнее. - Останься со мной, Сьюзан.

Мне нужно поработать. У Мидж отвисла челюсть. - Извините, сэр… Бринкерхофф уже шел к двери, но Мидж точно прилипла к месту. - Я с вами попрощался, мисс Милкен, - холодно сказал Фонтейн.  - Я вас ни в чем не виню.

Как я могла не выключить монитор. Сьюзан понимала: как только Хейл заподозрит, что она искала что-то в его компьютере, то сразу же поймет, что подлинное лицо Северной Дакоты раскрыто. И пойдет на все, лишь бы эта информация не вышла из стен Третьего узла. А что, подумала Сьюзан, если броситься мимо него и побежать к двери. Но осуществить это намерение ей не пришлось.

Сьюзан Флетчер минуту назад прошествовала в туалет, поэтому она ему тоже не помеха. Единственной проблемой оставался Хейл. Чатрукьян посмотрел на комнату Третьего узла - не следит ли за ним криптограф. - Какого черта, - промычал он себе под нос. Под его ногами была потайная дверь, почти неразличимая на полу.

Я хотел внести исправления тихо и спокойно. Изначальный план состоял в том, чтобы сделать это незаметно и позволить Танкадо продать пароль.

Он был уверен, что чрезмерный нажим не приведет ни к чему хорошему. - Расслабьтесь, мистер Беккер. Если будет ошибка, мы попробуем снова, пока не добьемся успеха.

Ключ к шифру-убийце - это число. - Но, сэр, тут висячие строки. Танкадо - мастер высокого класса, он никогда не оставил бы висячие строки, тем более в таком количестве. Эти висячие строки, или сироты, обозначают лишние строки программы, никак не связанные с ее функцией. Они ничего не питают, ни к чему не относятся, никуда не ведут и обычно удаляются в процессе окончательной проверки и антивирусной обработки.

Капля Росы. Беккер задумался. Что это за имя такое - Капля Росы. Он в последний раз взглянул на Клушара.

Сьюзан снова завладели прежние сомнения: правильно ли они поступают, решив сохранить ключ и взломать Цифровую крепость. Ей было не по себе, хотя пока, можно сказать, им сопутствовала удача. Чудесным образом Северная Дакота обнаружился прямо под носом и теперь попал в западню.