File Name: placental development and function ppt to .zip
Glucocorticoids GCs , steroid hormones produced predominantly by the adrenal gland, are key mediators of stress responses.
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- The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Fetal and Placental Development
- Human placenta and trophoblast development: key molecular mechanisms and model systems
It lies implanted on the uterine wall. It is connected with fetus through umbilical cord in the amniotic cavity.
The very apt definition of a placenta is coined by Mossman, namely apposition or fusion of the fetal membranes to the uterine mucosa for physiological exchange. As such, it is a specialized organ whose purpose is to provide continuing support to the developing young. By this definition, placentas have evolved within every vertebrate class other than birds.
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Abnormal placentation is considered as an underlying cause of various pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, the latter increasing the risk for the development of severe disorders in later life such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms governing human placental formation and trophoblast cell lineage specification and differentiation have been poorly unravelled, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cellular model systems. However, over the past few years major progress has been made by establishing self-renewing human trophoblast stem cells and 3-dimensional organoids from human blastocysts and early placental tissues opening the path for detailed molecular investigations. Herein, we summarize the present knowledge about human placental development, its stem cells, progenitors and differentiated cell types in the trophoblast epithelium and the villous core. Anatomy of the early placenta, current model systems, and critical key regulatory factors and signalling cascades governing placentation will be elucidated. Formation of the placenta, the unique exchange organ between mother and fetus, is essential for successful human pregnancy and fetal health.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The mechanisms by which this takes place involve a complex interplay of systems, including the microbiome, metabolome, placenta, and epigenetic changes. The seventh session of the workshop, moderated by Emily Oken of the Harvard Medical School and the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, explored the evidence on these systems and the implications of maternal nutrition on early-life programming. Highlights from the session presentation and panel discussion are presented in Box The placenta not only transfers nutrients to the infant and removes waste products, it also communicates with the mother and fetus, he explained.
The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Fetal and Placental Development
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Almost immediately after the implantation of the ovum, its trophoblast begins to proliferate and invade the surrounding decidual tissue. As it does so, it breaks through the walls of the maternal capillaries, from which the blood escapes and forms cavities, which are bounded partly by trophoblast and partly by decidua. The maternal blood spaces established in this manner represent the earliest stages of the intervillous blood spaces of the future placenta.
Human placenta and trophoblast development: key molecular mechanisms and model systems
The placenta is a temporary fetal organ that begins developing from the blastocyst shortly after implantation. It plays critical roles in facilitating nutrient, gas and waste exchange between the physically separate maternal and fetal circulations, and is an important endocrine organ producing hormones that regulate both maternal and fetal physiology during pregnancy.
Clinical Relevance - Placental Abruption
Возможно, это приманка, - предположила Сьюзан. Стратмор вскинул брови. - С какой целью. - Танкадо мог посылать фиктивные сообщения на неиспользованный адрес в надежде, что мы его обнаружим и решим, что он обеспечил себе защиту. В таком случае ему не нужно будет передавать пароль кому-то. Возможно, он работал в одиночку. Стратмор хмыкнул.
Сердце Ролдана упало. Выходит, это не клиент. - Вы хотите сказать, что нашли этот номер. - Да, я сегодня нашел в парке чей-то паспорт. Ваш номер был записан на клочке бумаги и вложен в паспорт.
Фонтейн почти во всем полагался на Стратмора и верил в его план, в том числе и в достойную сожаления, но неизбежную необходимость устранять Энсея Танкадо и в переделку Цифровой крепости, - все это было правильно. Но одно не давало Фонтейну покоя - то, что Стратмор решил прибегнуть к услугам Халохота. Тот, конечно, был мастером своего дела, но наемник остается наемником.