Endocrine Glands And Their Hormones Table Pdf

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Endocrine glands are ductless glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones , directly into the blood. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland , pituitary gland , pancreas , ovaries , testes , thyroid gland , parathyroid gland , hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

The pituitary gland or hypophysis is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain , and rests in a small, bony cavity sella turcica covered by a dural fold diaphragma sellae.

The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body, they are still considered to be one system because they have similar functions, similar mechanisms of influence, and many important interrelationships. Some glands also have non-endocrine regions that have functions other than hormone secretion. For example, the pancreas has a major exocrine portion that secretes digestive enzymes and an endocrine portion that secretes hormones. The ovaries and testes secrete hormones and also produce the ova and sperm.

Endocrine gland

The pituitary gland or hypophysis is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain , and rests in a small, bony cavity sella turcica covered by a dural fold diaphragma sellae. The pituitary is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the infundibular stem or pituitary stalk.

Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine. Enhances effects of cholecystokinin , stops production of gastric juice. Release of bile from gallbladder , hunger suppressant. The pancreas is a heterocrine gland as it functions both as an endocrine and as an exocrine gland. Intake of lipids and synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes. Other anabolic effects.

Inhibit release of glucagon [7] Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH. Virilizing : maturation of sex organs , formation of scrotum , deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair. Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo. Increase insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance. Cholecalciferol is converted in the liver first to hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol then to 1,dihydroxycholecalciferol calcitriol , which is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D.

In , skeletal muscle was identified as an endocrine organ [14] due to its now well-established role in the secretion of myokines. Signalling molecules released by adipose tissue are referred to as adipokines.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series of lists about Human anatomy General. Features Regions Variations Movements Systems. See also. Glossary of medicine Epithelia Anatomical terminology Index of anatomy articles Outline of anatomy Cell types by origin. Further information: Calcium metabolism. Vander's Human Physiology: the mechanisms of body function. J Smooth Muscle Res. N Engl J Med.

Retrieved 16 September Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on J Clin Endocrinol Metab. August 6, Placental Hormones. J Surg Res. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Physiological Reviews. The Journal of Physiology. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. Anatomy of the endocrine system. Pars intermedia Pars tuberalis Pars distalis Acidophil cell Somatotropic cell Prolactin cell Somatomammotrophic cell Basophil cell Corticotropic cell Gonadotropic cell Thyrotropic cell Chromophobe cell.

Pars nervosa Median eminence Stalk Pituicyte Herring bodies. Follicular cell Parafollicular cell. Chief cell Oxyphil cell. Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis.

Chromaffin cell. Pinealocyte Corpora arenacea. Enteroendocrine cell Paraganglia Organ of Zuckerkandl Placenta Development List of human endocrine organs and actions.

Categories : Endocrine system Human physiology Human anatomy. Hidden categories: Pages with reference errors Pages with broken reference names All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Add links. See also Glossary of medicine Epithelia Anatomical terminology Index of anatomy articles Outline of anatomy Cell types by origin. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons.

Stimulate thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH release from anterior pituitary primarily. Dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus. Inhibit prolactin released from anterior pituitary. Neuroendocrine neurons of the Arcuate nucleus.

Stimulate Growth hormone GH release from anterior pituitary. Neuroendocrine cells of the Periventricular nucleus. Inhibit Growth hormone release from anterior pituitary Inhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH release from anterior pituitary. Neuroendocrine cells of the Preoptic area. Stimulate follicle-stimulating hormone FSH release from anterior pituitary Stimulate luteinizing hormone LH release from anterior pituitary.

Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the Paraventricular nucleus. Stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH release from anterior pituitary. Magnocellular neurosecretory cells. In females: uterine contraction during birthing, lactation letdown reflex when nursing. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons, Magnocellular neurosecretory neurons of the Paraventricular nucleus and Supraoptic nucleus. Increases water permeability in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of nephrons , thus promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume.

Antioxidant Monitors the circadian rhythm including induction of drowsiness and lowering of the core body temperature. Stimulates growth and cell reproduction Stimulates Insulin-like growth factor 1 release from liver.

Stimulates thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3 synthesis and release from thyroid gland Stimulates iodine absorption by thyroid gland. Stimulates corticosteroid glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid and androgen synthesis and release from adrenocortical cells. In females: Stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles in ovary In males: Stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules In males: Stimulates spermatogenesis In males: Stimulates production of androgen-binding protein from Sertoli cells of the testes.

In females: Stimulates ovulation In females: Stimulates formation of corpus luteum In males: Stimulates testosterone synthesis from Leydig cells interstitial cells. Stimulates milk synthesis and release from mammary glands Mediates sexual gratification. Melanotropes in the Pars intermedia of the Anterior Pituitary.

Thyroid epithelial cell. More potent form of thyroid hormone Stimulates body oxygen and energy consumption, thereby increasing the basal metabolic rate Stimulates RNA polymerase I and II, thereby promoting protein synthesis. Thyroid epithelial cell s. Less active form of thyroid hormone Acts as a prohormone to triiodothyronine Stimulates body oxygen and energy consumption, thereby increasing the basal metabolic rate Stimulates RNA polymerase I and II, thereby promoting protein synthesis.

Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells. Increased food intake and decreased physical activity. It can be associated with obesity. Suppress release of gastrin , cholecystokinin CCK , secretin , motilin , vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP , gastric inhibitory polypeptide GIP , enteroglucagon Lowers rate of gastric emptying Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine.

X cells. Smooth muscle contraction of stomach [4]. Secretion of bicarbonate from liver , pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands Enhances effects of cholecystokinin , stops production of gastric juice. Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas Release of bile from gallbladder , hunger suppressant. Intake of glucose , glycogenesis and glycolysis in liver and muscle from blood. Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver. Increases blood glucose level.

Inhibit release of insulin [7] Inhibit release of glucagon [7] Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Activates the renin—angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen. Extraglomerular mesangial cells. Stimulate erythrocyte production. Proximal tubule cells. Active form of vitamin D 3 Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH.

Endocrine System Overview

Endocrine Community. Email Print Discuss. Written by Robert M. Sargis MD, PhD. Simply put, the endocrine system is a network of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones to help your body function properly.

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

Human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively. It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland , which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface. Salivary glands and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands.

Communication is a process in which a sender transmits signals to one or more receivers to control and coordinate actions. Together, these two systems are primarily responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the body. The nervous system uses two types of intercellular communication—electrical and chemical signaling—either by the direct action of an electrical potential, or in the latter case, through the action of chemical neurotransmitters such as serotonin or norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters act locally and rapidly.

The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs located throughout the body. However, while the nervous system uses nerve impulses and neurotransmitters for communication, the endocrine system uses chemical messengers called hormones. Keep reading to discover more about the endocrine system, what it does, and the hormones it produces. The endocrine system is responsible for regulating a range of bodily functions through the release of hormones. Hormones are secreted by the glands of the endocrine system, traveling through the bloodstream to various organs and tissues in the body.

Endocrine glands and their hormones

Я только что выяснил, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ устарел.

About the Endocrine System

В нашей стране происходит много хорошего, но немало и плохого. Кто-то должен иметь возможность оценивать и отделять одно от другого. В этом и заключается наша работа.

 Ты, часом, не шутишь? - Он был едва ли не на полметра выше этого панка и тяжелее килограммов на двадцать. - С чего это ты взял, что я шучу. Беккер промолчал. - Подними! - срывающимся голосом завопил панк. Беккер попробовал его обойти, но парень ему не позволил. - Я сказал тебе - подними. Одуревшие от наркотиков панки за соседними столиками начали поворачивать головы в их сторону, привлеченные перепалкой.

Итак, каков следующий шаг. Он решил подумать об этом через минуту. Сейчас ему надо было совершить давно уже откладываемую прогулку в туалетную комнату. ГЛАВА 64 Сьюзан осталась одна в тишине и сумерках Третьего узла. Стоявшая перед ней задача была проста: войти в компьютер Хейла, найти ключ и уничтожить все следы его переписки с Танкадо. Нигде не должно остаться даже намека на Цифровую крепость. Сьюзан снова завладели прежние сомнения: правильно ли они поступают, решив сохранить ключ и взломать Цифровую крепость.


A more complete listing of the endocrine glands Exocrine Glands and Endocrine glands All hormones act by binding to their receptors.


Волосатая грудь начиналась сразу под тройным подбородком и выпячивалась ничуть не меньше, чем живот необъятного размера, на котором едва сходился пояс купального халата с фирменным знаком отеля. Беккер старался придать своему лицу как можно более угрожающее выражение. - Ваше имя. Красное лицо немца исказилось от страха. - Was willst du.

 Сядь.  - На этот раз это прозвучало как приказ. Сьюзан осталась стоять. - Коммандер, если вы все еще горите желанием узнать алгоритм Танкадо, то можете заняться этим без. Я хочу уйти.

Я всегда добиваюсь своей цели, - подумал Стратмор. Не обращая внимания на пролом в стене, он подошел к электронной двери. Створки с шипением разъехались в стороны.

Выходит, мне придется встать. Он жестом предложил старику перешагнуть через него, но тот пришел в негодование и еле сдержался. Подавшись назад, он указал на целую очередь людей, выстроившихся в проходе. Беккер посмотрел в другую сторону и увидел, что женщина, сидевшая рядом, уже ушла и весь ряд вплоть до центрального прохода пуст. Не может быть, что служба уже закончилась.

Он не скрывал от нанимателей того, что случилось с ним во время службы в морской пехоте, и стремился завоевать их расположение, предлагая работать без оплаты в течение месяца, чтобы они узнали ему цену. В желающих принять его на работу не было недостатка, а увидав, что он может творить на компьютере, они уже не хотели его отпускать. Профессионализм Хейла достиг высокого уровня, и у него появились знакомые среди интернет-пользователей по всему миру.

Он преобразовывал послания таким образом, чтобы текст выглядел бессмыслицей. Что, разумеется, было не. Каждое послание состояло из числа букв, равного полному квадрату, - шестнадцати, двадцати пяти, ста - в зависимости оттого, какой объем информации нужно было передать.

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