File Name: clippers and clampers lecture notes .zip
- Unit I:-CLIPPERS AND CLAMPERS Diode Clippers
- Diode Clipping Circuits Notes for Electronics Engineering 1st Year
- Electronic Circuits - Clamper Circuits
Unit I:-CLIPPERS AND CLAMPERS Diode Clippers
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Pooja Murali. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Clipper and clampers 1. What is a Clipping Circuit? Clipping circuit is a wave-shaping circuit, and is used to either remove or clip a portion of the applied wave in order to control the shape of the output waveform.
One of the most basic clipping circuit is the half-wave rectifier. A half-wave rectifier clips either the negative half cycle or the positive half cycle of an alternating waveform, and allows to pass only one half cycle. Clipping circuits are also referred to as voltage limiters, amplitude selectors, or slicers. Clippers are used to eliminate amplitude noise or to fabricate new waveforms from an existing signal. Classification Of Clippers Clipping circuit consists of non-linear and linear devices.
The series configuration is defined as one where diode is in series with the load, while the shunt clipper has the diode in a branch parallel to the load. Positive Clipper and Negative Clipper Positive Diode Clipper: In a positive clipper, the positive half cycles of the input voltage will be removed. The circuit arrangements for a positive clipper is illustrated in the figure given below. Thus causes the positive half cycle to be clipped off. In Figure b , the diode is kept in parallel with the load.
This is the diagram of a positive shunt clipper circuit. This causes the diode to conduct heavily. This causes the voltage drop across the diode or across the load resistance RL to be zero.
Thus output voltage during the positive half cycles is zero, as shown in the output waveform. During the negative half cycles of the input signal voltage, the diode D is reverse biased and behaves as an open switch.
The negative clipping circuit is almost same as the positive clipping circuit, with only one difference. Negative Diode Clipper: 9. Biased Positive Clipper And Biased Negative Clipper a b A biased clipper comes in handy when a small portion of positive or negative half cycles of the signal voltage is to be removed. When a small portion of the negative half cycle is to be removed, it is called a biased negative clipper. This causes it to act as an open-switch. Thus a biased negative clipper removes input voltage when the input signal voltage becomes greater than the battery voltage.
Clipping can be changed by reversing the battery and diode connections, as illustrated in [figure b ]. Different Clipping Circuits Combinational Clippers When a portion of both positive and negative of each half cycle of the input voltage is to be clipped or removed , combination clipper is employed. The circuit for such a clipper is given in the figure above. The action of the circuit is summarized below. The arrangement is shown in the figure given below.
When a transient takes place on the input line, as shown in figure given below, diode D2 gets forward biased and starts conducting. Thus transient is shorted to ground and the circuit is protected from damage due to transient. But in case of high frequency signals transmission occurs through diode capacitance which is undesirable. This is the drawback of using diode as a series element in such clippers. But in case of high frequency input signals, diode capacitance affects the circuit operation adversely and the signal gets attenuated that is, it passes through diode capacitance to ground.
The clamper is also referred to as an IC restorer and ac signal level shifter. Clampers-Overview: For a clamping circuit at least three components — a diode, a capacitor and a resistor are required. Sometimes an independent dc supply is also required to cause an additional shift. Thus, the input waveform and output waveform will have the same peak- to-peak value that is, 2Vmax. This is shown in the figure above. It must also be noted that same readings will be obtained in the ac voltmeter for the input voltage and the clamped output voltage.
In the figure shown above, the input waveform has a peak value of Vmax and average value over a complete cycle is zero. The clamped output varies from 2 Vmax and 0 or 0 and -2Vmax. Thus ths peak value of the clamped output is 2Vmax and average value is Vmax. The values must be large enough to make sure that the voltage across the capacitor C does not change significantly during the time interval the diode is non-conducting.
A clamp circuit adds the positive or negative dc component to the input signal so as to push it either on the positive side,or on the negative side.. Positive Clamper The circuit will be called a positive clamper , when the signal is pushed upward by the circuit. When the signal moves upward, as shown in figure a , the negative peak of the signal coincides with the zero level. Negative Clamper The circuit will be called a negative clamper, when the signal is pushed downward by the circuit.
When the signal is pushed on the negative side, as shown in figure b , the positive peak of the input signal coincides with the zero level. Positive Clamping 1. Unbiased During the positive half cycle, the voltage across the output terminals becomes equal to the sum of the input voltage and capacitor voltage considering the capacitor as initially fully charged.
During the negative half cycle of the input, the diode starts conducting and charges the capacitor rapidly to its peak input value. Thus the waveforms are clamped towards the positive direction as shown below. With Positive Vr A positive reference voltage is added in series with the diode of the positive clamper as shown in the circuit. During the positive half cycle of the input, the diode conducts as initially the supply voltage is less than the anode positive reference voltage.
If once the cathode voltage is greater than anode voltage then the diode stops conduction. During the negative half cycle, the diode conducts and charges the capacitor. The output is generated as shown in the figure. With Negatve Vr The direction of the reference voltage is reversed, which is connected in series with the diode making it as a negative reference voltage.
During the positive half cycle the diode will be non conducting, such that the output is equal to capacitor voltage and input voltage. During the negative half cycle, the diode starts conduction only after the cathode voltage value becomes less than the anode voltage.
Thus, the output waveforms are generated as shown in the below figure. Negative Clamping 1. Unbiased During the positive half cycle, the input diode is in forward bias- and as the diode conducts-capacitor gets charged up to peak value of input supply.
Diode Clipping Circuits Notes for Electronics Engineering 1st Year
Clippers or limiters are sometimes used to clip off portions of signal voltages above or below certain levels. Diode Clamper: Clamper circuit is used to add or.
Electronic Circuits - Clamper Circuits
Actually, the positive and negative peaks of the signals can be placed at desired levels using the clamping circuits. As the DC level gets shifted, a clamper circuit is called as a Level Shifter. Clamper circuits consist of energy storage elements like capacitors. A simple clamper circuit comprises of a capacitor, a diode, a resistor and a dc battery if required. A Clamper circuit can be defined as the circuit that consists of a diode, a resistor and a capacitor that shifts the waveform to a desired DC level without changing the actual appearance of the applied signal.
A circuit which cutoff voltage above or below are both at specified level is called clipper. A clipper which removes a portion of positive half cycle of the input signal is called positive clipper. A clipper circuit that removes the negative half cycle is called negative clipper. Figure a shows the circuit of a positive clipper.
Typical projects of electronics operate at different electrical signal ranges and therefore, for these electronic circuits , it is intended to maintain the signals in a particular range in order to obtain the desired outputs. To receive the output at expected voltage levels, we have versatile tools in the electrical domain and those are called Clippers and Clampers. This article shows a clear description of clippers and clampers, their differences, and how they operate as per the expected voltage levels. Clippers and Clampers in electronics are widely used in the operation of analog television receivers and FM transmitters. An electronic device that is used to evade the output of a circuit to go beyond the preset value voltage level without varying the remaining part of the input waveform is called a Clipper circuit.
This type of processing is useful for signal shaping, circuit protection, and communications. The half wave rectifier is the simplest form of diode clipper. There are two general categories of clippers: series and parallel. In the series clipper the diode and the load are in series, while in the parallel clippers the diode is in parallel to the load. Further, each of these two categories has two types: negative and positive.