Encyclopedia Of Zionism And Israel Pdf

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Two-volume Encyclopedia of Zionism, Israel, First of Its Kind, to Be Published

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Arab-Israeli wars

What is Zionism? Does psychology of religion have anything to offer to the understanding of Zionism? The term Zion has traditionally been viewed as synonymous with Jerusalem Roth and Wigoder The most commonly understood use of the term Zionism is the belief that the land of Israel is the homeland of the Jewish people, and every effort is to be made to return Jewish people to the land. There is a detailed biblical definition of the territory in Numbers 1—15, and the territory was then expanded in the time of David and Solomon. The historical precursors of Zionist ideology are to be found in Jewish history from biblical times, including promises that the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Israel will inherit the land of Canaan, the process of Jewish settlement of the land, and various persecutions and forced movements of population.

Arab-Israeli wars , series of military conflicts between Israeli forces and various Arab forces, most notably in —49, , , , , and Clashes broke out almost immediately between Jews and Arabs in Palestine. As British troops prepared to withdraw from Palestine, conflict continued to escalate, with both Jewish and Arab forces committing belligerences. The news of a brutal massacre there by Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Stern Gang forces spread widely and inspired both panic and retaliation. Days later, Arab forces attacked a Jewish convoy headed for Hadassah Hospital, killing The next day, Arab forces from Egypt , Transjordan Jordan , Iraq , Syria , and Lebanon occupied the areas in southern and eastern Palestine not apportioned to the Jews by the UN partition of Palestine and then captured east Jerusalem , including the small Jewish quarter of the Old City. By early the Israelis had managed to occupy all of the Negev up to the former Egypt-Palestine frontier, except for the Gaza Strip.

Zionism is a movement that aspired to the creation of a sovereign Jewish state. Having emerged at the end of the 19 th century, the Zionist ambition was achieved in with the founding of the state of Israel. The murderous pogroms in the eastern part of the continent , as well as the establishment of ethnic nationalism and a biological discourse, had devastating effects on the ability and desire of Jews to assimilate in Western societies. Despite this basic unity of purpose, Zionism was not a monolithic ideology. Nevertheless, perhaps the most influential type of Zionism at least in retrospect was labor Zionism and the coalescence of the principal Zionist ethos of the Halutz pioneer , which emphasized the cultivation of the Land of Israel as the source for Jewish redemption from the hardship of the diaspora. Modern Hebrew culture was in its infancy at the time, and the groundwork was laid not only for Zionist political organizations in Europe and Palestine, but also for the Hebrew public sphere newspapers, education, etc.


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Chaim Herzog

Although the founding conference of the primary political part of Orthodox Jewry took place in May of , the serious organization of Agudat Israel in Poland began in It was internal Jewish developments, rather than external factors, which spurred the anti-Zionist Orthodox to organize politically for the first time. Agudat Israel represented Jews who wished to regulate all aspects of life according to tradition, with the assumption that this obligated Jews to manifest strong loyalty and peace toward the state in which they lived. Agudat Israel, therefore, felt threatened by Zionist activity including that of the religious Zionist party, Mizrachi , its culture and nationalism, as well as by the Bund's secularist understanding of its mission. Founded in in Vilna, it soon solidified its ideology: for autonomism, devoted to Yiddish language and culture, and secular nationalism.

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Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe: Glossary

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