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- Classic And Advanced Ceramics From Fundamentals To
- Classic and Advanced Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applications.
- Classic and Advanced Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applications
Classic And Advanced Ceramics From Fundamentals To
Embed Size px x x x x The complexity of electroceramic materials cannot be covered exhaustively in the present short chapter; instead, only basic information on the various dielectric effects will be provided. Examples of ceramic and single crystal materials, and their properties and applications will be given that are intended to stand pars pro toto for the completeness of information. Many oxide ceramic materials display properties that are conducive to important modern technical applications as sensors, actuators, capacitors, thermistors, varis-tors, solid electrolytes, ionic conductors, superconductors, permanent magnets with soft and hard characteristics, optoelectronic shutters, and many others.
Fre-quently, such ceramics have distorted perovskite or spinel structures that impart ferro - , piezo - or pyroelectric smart properties Newnham and Ruschau, Ferroics are oxide ceramics with moveable domain walls that can be shifted in response to electrical, magnetic, temperature, and stress eld gradients.
In contrast to polycrystalline ceramic materials with ferroic properties, there exist nonferroic single crystal piezoelectrics such as - quartz or materials with a calcium gallium germanate CGG structure, as well as single crystal pyroelectrics with perovskite structure such as lithium tantalate LiTaO 3. Robert B. Most advanced polycrystalline ceramics described in this chapter belong to the so - called ferroic materials with moveable domain walls 1 see Section 8.
Changes of these gradients cause linear or nonlinear responses outputs , such as the generation of electrical charges, mag-netization, strain, or temperature whereby input and output parameters are coupled by physical effects, as shown in Table 8.
Trivial materials responses are arranged along the diagonal of the matrix, whereas off - diagonal effects are characteristic features of smart or even intelligent materials Newnham and Ruschau, , Frequently, an effect and its inverse effect are utilized in coupled sensor - actuator applications, for example piezoelectric effect sensor and inverse piezoelectric effect or quadratic electrostriction actuator , pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects, or photovoltaic and electro - optic effects.
As shown in Table 8. It is important to state that the combination of a sensor and an actuator mimics two very basic and unique functions of a living organism being aware of its sur-. Table 8. Adapted from Uchino Domain walls are de ned as topological solitons, that is, 2 - D membranes formed by spontaneously breaking a discrete symmetry at a phase transition.
However, a smart material is not simply a sensor that receives a stimulus and responds with a signal. It is not simply an actuator that produces a useful motion either. Smart materials function both ways as a sensor and as an actuator. Some very smart materials have a control system ; that is, they analyze the sensing signal received and make a choice as what type of response to generate. In particu-lar, they tune their properties in time and space to optimize future behavior, and hence move along a learning curve.
Such actively smart materials may rightly be called intelligent Dry, ; Rogers, They may mimic biological systems that evolve into complex life forms by relying on persistent disequilibrium to optimize dynamic behavior Kelly, ; Newnham, This disequilibrium triggers rapid responses that enable the ferroic material to operate near an instabil-ity and to easily cross the morphotropic phase boundary see Section 8. The distinction between smart and intelligent materials is essentially one between linear and nonlinear properties, with the latter being adjusted by bias elds or forces to control the response Newnham and Ruschau, Shape memory alloys have a broad phase transition from a partially ordered austenitic CsCl - like structure to a martensitic phase of lower symmetry.
In PMN, a similar diffuse phase transition from a partially ordered paraelectric high - temperature state to a ferroelectric low - temperature relaxor state exists. In this regard, PMN is a ferroelectric analog to ferroelastic Nitinol. In PZT, which arguably is the most important actuator material, there are similar changes in symmetry see Section 8.
At high temperature, PZT is paraelectric with a cubic symmetry that changes to ferroelectric rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at lower temperature see Figure 8.
Useful actuators based on PZT operate near the morphotropic phase boundary MPB , where maximum ferro - and piezoelectric properties can be expected. Terfenol is the magnetic analog to ferroelectric PZT.
Magnetocaloric materials such as metallic Gd and Gd 5 Si 4 x Ge x have interesting potential applications in magnetic refrigeration Gscheidner, All of these materials have at least two phase transitions that can be described in terms of thermodynamic functions with two ordering parameters see Appendix B.
Ferroic materials are operated near an instability to make domain walls with their associated dipoles and strains moveable, as encountered in PZT or Terfe-nol. On the other hand, a second type of material involves a partially ordered phase, as in PMN or the shape memory alloys. These materials are operated near a diffuse phase transition with two coexisting phases, a high - temperature austen-ite - like phase and a low - temperature martensite - like phase.
A third type of smart. Ferroelectric mate-rials are dielectrics, the spontaneous polarization of which, caused by charge imbalances within the unit cell of the crystal structure, can be altered by the appli-cation of an outside electric eld see Section 8.
Pyroelectrics are con ned to the 10 crystallographical point groups with polar axes see Table 8. Piezoelectric materials are con ned to the 20 point groups without a center of symmetry see Section 8. See Full Reader. Post on Jun views. Category: Documents 1 download. It is important to state that the combination of a sensor and an actuator mimics two very basic and unique functions of a living organism being aware of its sur- Table 8. Input Output Charge, current Magnetization Strain Temperature Light Electrical eld Electrical permittivity Electromagnetic effect Inverse piezoelectric effect Electrocaloric effect Electro - optic effect Magnetic eld Magneto - electric effect Permeability Magneto - striction Magneto - caloric effect Magneto - optic effect Stress Piezoelectric effect Piezomagnetic effect Elastic constant Photoelastic effect Entropy Pyroelectric effect Thermal expansion Speci c heat Light Photovoltaic effect Photostriction Refractive index 1 Ferroic crystals possess two or more orientation states or domains, and under a suitably chosen driving force the domain walls move, switching the crystal from one domain state to another Newnham, Lecture 1 Introduction, Fundamentals, Classic Mistakes 1.
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Classic and Advanced Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applications.
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Classic and Advanced Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applications
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Structural Dynamics Fundamentals and Advanced Applications
Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, comprehensive text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects, and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a wide diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text, and a chapter is devoted to ceramics as gemstones. Also new are expanded sets of text-specific homework problems and other resources for instructors. It is a must read textbook for researchers, graduate students and undergraduate students who are interested in ceramics.
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