File Name: cultural differences in parenting style and discipline .zip
- Parenting Around the World: Child-Rearing Practices in Different Cultures
- Cultural Approaches to Parenting
- Parenting skills
- Cultural Variations in Parenting Styles in the Majority World Evidences from Nigeria and Cameroon
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Parenting Around the World: Child-Rearing Practices in Different Cultures
Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review. Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health.
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families.
There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.
Descriptors: adolescent behavior; risk-taking; adolescent health; parent-child relations. Adolescence is a critical period for the development of healthy behaviors and lifestyles. Findings from numerous studies over the past 20 years suggest that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has significant impact on the development or prevention of risky adolescent health behaviors Although there are many behaviors that might be considered risky, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC has identified six health risk behaviors as being particularly salient for the development of optimal health.
These six risk behaviors include: a behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; b tobacco use; c alcohol and other drug use; d sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; e unhealthy dietary behaviors; and f physical inactivity 9.
These behaviors are often established in early childhood and may continue and intensify through the adolescent period. The health of our children and teens are a priority as reflected in the Healthy People goals for the nation. The risk taking behaviors that will be addressed in this paper are alcohol, drug and tobacco use, violence and unintentional injuries including suicide and violence ; sexual behaviors; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity 9. There are many dimensions of the adolescent-parent relationship that might influence adolescent health and developmental outcomes, as well as the development of risky health behaviors.
Such components include parental warmth versus coldness, acceptance versus rejection, structure versus chaos, autonomy versus control, involvement versus detachment or neglect, strictness versus permissiveness, consistent versus inconsistent discipline, and connection versus distance Specific parenting behaviors that have been found to influence adolescent health and risky health behaviors include type of discipline consistent versus inconsistent , level of parental involvement, level of parental monitoring, type of communication , and parenting style In a study 19 , parenting style was definied encompassing both contextual and individual aspects of a parent's child rearing, and distinguished this concept from more content- and goal-specific parenting practices and behaviors.
Various studies 1, proposed that parenting styles vary along two separate dimensions: demandingness control and responsiveness acceptance , and that crossing these dimensions yields separate categories of parenting styles.
Some have added a fourth category of neglectful parenting style low control and low acceptance Others have used different operational definitions and measures, although most measures focus on dimensions of control and acceptance 1,16, The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between that address specific relationships between parenting styles and the six priority adolescent risk behaviors identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 9.
In order to identify articles for inclusion in this review, we searched the CINAHL, Medline, and Psych Info databases for articles that were published between and , using the key words of parenting styles, and risky adolescent health behaviors, and cross-listing key words of parenting styles and adolescent with each of the six risky behaviors alcohol, drug and tobacco use, violence and unintentional injuries including suicide and violence ; sexual behaviors; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity.
The review includes only studies examining specific relationships between parenting styles and substance use, unhealthy eating, and risky sexual behaviors Because we found very few studies examining relationships between parenting styles and low physical activity and parenting styles and intentional or unintentional injury, we expanded the criteria for this section to include studies that examined specific parenting behaviors that are considered components of parenting style e.
This review is organized by first presenting summaries of studies examining relationships with each of the six risky behaviors, and then by examining commonalities and differences across the studies. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for future research and practice. Use of alcohol, drugs, and tobacco poses a significant risk to health of adolescents. Consistent with research published prior to , findings from these studies suggested a decreased risk of drug use among adolescents whose parents had an authoritative parenting style 8,,27, Adolescents who reported that their parents had authoritative parenting styles were also less likely to initiate or increase their rates of smoking over a 2-year period Although adolescents from authoritative homes reported more smoking-specific discussions with their parents, findings from two studies suggested that parenting style did not moderate the relationship between smoking-specific parenting practices and adolescent smoking Various sources 36 reported that although parenting style did not predict smoking experimentation, adolescents who rated their parents as having a parenting style with higher levels of intimacy and autonomy considered a "healthy" parenting style were less likely to initiate smoking, or more likely to report intention to quit if they had already initiated smoking.
In this study 36 , the Family of Origin scale was used to measure the level of intimacy and autonomy within the family. The researchers assumed that high levels of intimacy and autonomy reflected optimal parenting styles 18, Parental permissiveness or indulgence was also associated with increased adolescent alcohol and tobacco use 22,23, Several researchers noted that there were differences in the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent risky behaviors depending on whether the parenting style was rated by adolescents or parents, suggesting the importance of considering both parent and adolescent reports 22, One study 22 , for example, found that alcohol and tobacco use among a sample of 8 th and 9 th grade students was associated with a child perception of lower authoritativeness and higher permissiveness, but that there was no relationship between parental perceptions of their parenting style and child alcohol or tobacco use.
These researchers concluded that parents may benefit from understanding how their children perceive them, and suggested that even though the child's perception of parenting style may be biased, it was most useful in predicting substance use. In one research 26 found correlations of.
However, another study 25 found that adolescents were more likely to rate their mothers as authoritative and less likely to rate them as uninvolved.
Other researchers have reported significant gender differences in the strength of relationships between parenting styles and adolescent substance use, and findings suggest that the parenting style of the parent of the same sex has the strongest relationship with self-regulation and substance use 23, Only three studies included an analysis of differences in effects of parenting styles among different racial and ethnic groups, although one source noted that findings from previous studies have suggested that authoritarian parenting is not as damaging in minority families as in White families.
These researchers found that greater parental warmth and family acceptance exerted a stronger impact in reducing drug use among Latinos than among White and Black adolescents 4. A study 22 reported that White students perceived parents as less authoritarian than Hispanic and Asian students, and another 8 found that White parents were more likely to be rated as authoritative, and African-American and Hispanic parents were more likely to be rated as autocratic.
Although there were slight differences across the 15 studies based on the measures used, the gender or ethnicity of the parent and adolescent, and on whether parenting styles were rated by parents or adolescents, the findings were generally consistent, and confirmed research published prior to which suggested that authoritative parenting is associated with reduced risk of drug or alcohol use.
Findings also suggest that authoritarian and neglectful parenting is associated with the greatest risk of substance use, followed by permissive parenting. Intentional and unintentional injuries are a major concern during adolescence in the Unites States.
Intentional injury is defined as deliberate harm to self or others, such as homicide, and violence. Notably, the CDC indicated that suicide is a behavior that contributes to violence, placing suicide in the category of intentional injury.
Unintentional injury occurs primarily through automobile accidents during the teen years. A search of the literature regarding the influence of parenting style on intentional and unintentional injury in adolescents yielded few publications.
However, when the search strategy was expanded to include depression, which is a major factor in adolescent suicide, a more substantive body of research was produced. Because there were very few studies specifically examining parenting style, the search was also expanded to include articles that addressed specific parenting behaviors that are often included in measures of parenting style patterns, such as affection, control, discipline and acceptance.
Several studies were located in which researchers examined relationships between adolescent depression and aspects of parenting style such as support or acceptance, discipline, and control, addressed singularly or in various combinations.
One study addressed criticism and positive behaviors, and two studies addressed family parenting styles and their relationship to outcomes, including depression 8, Another research 39 assessed maternal critical and positive interaction behaviors among mothers of "relatively depressed adolescents", aged years, in a predominantly Caucasian but ethnically diverse sample. These mothers were compared with mothers of adolescents who did not have symptoms of depression.
Adolescents with depressive symptoms responded to maternal criticism with depressive behavior, in contrast to adolescents without depressive symptoms. Depressed affect in the adolescent was followed by less positive and supportive responses from mothers.
Mothers of adolescents who were in the depressed group demonstrated less positive and supportive behavior overall. A study of Mexican-origin families of year old adolescents from low income inner city areas in the Southwest U. A cross-national study of the interrelationships of parenting and adolescent outcomes in the United States and 11 other countries 41 made a sophisticated and complex dominance analysis of three aspects of parenting style, parental support, psychological control and behavioral control, was conducted based on adolescent reports regarding both mothers and fathers.
Parental support was consistently linked to lower levels of depressive feeling in adolescents across groups both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, demonstrating causal linkages.
A research studied the different influences of parenting style on adolescent mental health that were due to acculturative status by examining low income Mexican American and Euro American families of children years of age Both Mexican American and Euro American families with low levels of conflict and hostile control, who were accepting and used consistent discipline, were more likely to have children with fewer depressive symptoms and conduct disorder.
One study examined the relationship of controlling parenting style with adolescent depression in a multiethnic balanced sample of Caucasian, Latino and African American girls There was no significant relationship between firm maternal control and depression in Caucasian and Latino girls, but a negative relationship of firm control with depression was found in the African American group.
This suggests that the meaning of similar parenting behaviors are differently constructed by different ethnic groups. Firm control may be more normative and adaptive in African American groups, buffering the risk for depression in African-American girls. Researches examined the contribution of family parenting styles to depression of eighth graders enrolled in a longitudinal study Family parenting styles were formed by combining individual styles of two parents, who were classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or uninvolved based on youth ratings and research observation.
When at least one parent was authoritative, children had significantly lower levels of depression as well as delinquency. A combination of an authoritative parent with either an authoritative or indulgent parent, or a combination of two indulgent parents were associated with better outcomes than a combination of an uninvolved mother and an indulgent or uninvolved father. An examination 8 of relationships between parenting styles and depression among 3, year-olds in California found that adolescents who reported that their parents had an authoritative style were least likely to have depressive symptoms, followed by adolescents who had permissive, autocratic, and unengaged parenting.
These authors identified three subgroups at particular risk for depression: African-American boys with unengaged parents, and Asian girls with either autocratic or unengaged parents. In summary, parental support demonstrated a negative relationship with depression across studies and cultural groups. In addition, although hostile control demonstrated a positive relationship with adolescent depression in one study, firm control demonstrated a negative relationship with adolescent depression among African American families.
Slight evidence suggests a positive relationship of inconsistent discipline with adolescent depression. An authoritative parenting style by at least one parent appears to protect the adolescent from depression, whereas uninvolvement poses a risk for depression. Parental caring, warmth, control, conflict, and authoritarianism have been examined in relation to adolescent suicidal ideation or self-harm. Authors found that more negative touch from family and friends and less positive touch was related to greater suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm among year old middle class Caucasian adolescents Moreover, more frequent positive touch and less frequent negative touch were associated with perceptions of parental caring, suggesting that physical contact may reflect differences in parenting style.
One group was experiencing suicidal ideation and the other was not. Those with suicidal ideation perceived mothers and fathers to be significantly more authoritarian, perceived mothers to be significantly more over controlling and perceived the family climate to be significantly more conflictual and less warm. The rate of this behavior was double for those who were low on maternal and paternal care. Rates of suicidal behavior were higher for those who were low or high, versus moderate, in maternal or paternal control.
Similarly, female Israeli adolescents manifesting deliberate self-poisoning perceived their mothers as less caring and more controlling than non-self-harming adolescents.
This parenting style was labeled "affectionless control" In summary, parental caring and warmth bear a consistent negative relationship with suicidal ideation and self-harm, as demonstrated in three cultures. Parental controlling behavior and conflict within the family or parent-adolescent dyad appear to be positively related to suicidal ideation and behavior in an Asian and Australian group.
However, the number of studies in this area is limited. Only one study was located that addressed parenting style and adolescent violence African American adolescents, aged years, responded to questions about parental style authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive of their mothers and also described their reactions to hypothetical situations that might produce violent reactions.
Their anticipated reactions were rated for violence. Adolescents who described their mother as using a permissive parenting style were more likely to demonstrate a tendency to anticipate a more violent response to the hypothetical situation. No studies of parental style and adolescent injury were located. However, one research studied the relationship of supervision of children and their unintentional injury risk Children with behavioral disorders and their mothers were observed in a "hazard room" that contained items that appeared dangerous, but were not.
Maternal ignoring of children's dangerous behavior in the room was related to children's injury history.
Cultural Approaches to Parenting
The authoritative parenting style is an approach to child-rearing that combines warmth, sensitivity, and the setting of limits. Parents use positive reinforcement and reasoning to guide children. They avoid resorting to threats or punishments. This approach is common in educated, middle class families, and linked with superior child outcomes throughout the world. Kids raised by authoritative parents are more likely to become independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, academically successful, and well-behaved.
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting can be more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. For instance, a parent can spend an entire afternoon with his or her child, yet the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not demonstrating enough interest towards the child. Parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond to and make demands on their children. Parenting practices are specific behaviors, while parenting styles represent broader patterns of parenting practices. Children go through different stages in life, therefore parents create their own parenting styles from a combination of factors that evolve over time as children begin to develop their own personalities. During the stage of infancy, parents try to adjust to a new lifestyle in terms of adapting and bonding with their new infant.
Parents often face a seemingly endless array of choices when it comes to child-rearing. From deciding whether or not to work, to selecting breast milk vs. Some practices can appear neglectful by American standards, while others just seem unusual. Norwegian parents let their kids sleep in the freezing cold, NPR reports. Sara Harkness, a professor of human development at the University of Connecticut, discovered a trait that appears unique to American parents: their belief in the importance of early age cognitive stimulation. Her study on cultural models and developmental agendas for early infancy concluded that American mothers were more likely to emphasize the importance of maintaining high levels of mental arousal and activity than their counterparts in other countries.
The child-parent relationship has a major influence on most aspects of child development. During the first years of life — thought by many to be a unique period of human development — parents assume special importance. Ensuring the best possible outcome for children requires parents to face the challenge of balancing the maturity and disciplinary demands they make to integrate their children into the family and social system with maintaining an atmosphere of warmth, responsiveness and support. When parent conduct and attitude during the preschool years do not reflect an appropriate balance on these spectra, children may face a multitude of adjustment issues.
This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form behavior and function meaning in parenting as embedded in culture.
Cultural Variations in Parenting Styles in the Majority World Evidences from Nigeria and Cameroon
Developmental psychologists have long been interested in how parents affect child development. However, finding actual cause-and-effect links between specific actions of parents and later behavior of children is very difficult. Some children raised in dramatically different environments can later grow up to have remarkably similar personalities.
Parenting, though the best thing in the world, was never an easy task. Be it staying up late completely sleep deprived all the time, to being covered in burps and pukes, thus spoiling all your clothes. While there are a lot of commonalities, some stark cultural differences in parenting style and discipline can be observed around the world.
Parenting in South American and African Contexts. From anthropological perspective culture may be defined as a whole complex of traditional behaviour which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, religion and customs, and any other capabilities, and habits, that have been acquired and developed by the human race, as members of societies, and which is successively learned by each generation. In addition culture also consists of learned ways of acting, feeling and thinking, [ 1 , 2 ]. The implication from this definition is that culture could be learned, acquired, experienced, and transmitted from one generation to another generation, or can be transferred from one place to another through acculturation. From psychological perspective culture was conceptualised as a dynamic and socially interactive process and as comprising of two components [ 3 ]. One component deals with the creation of shared activity which is reflected in the cultural practices of members of the society. The second component deals with the creation of shared meaning which leads to cultural interpretations collectively given to behavioural patterns in the society.
Notable Cultural Differences in Parenting: The Individual vs. the Collective
Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review. Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families.
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Без воска? - тихо спросила она, обнимая. - Без воска.
Беккер застонал и провел рукой по волосам. - Когда он вылетает. - В два часа ночи по воскресеньям.
Его массивная фигура буквально нависла над ней, запах одеколона ударил в ноздри.