Data And Information In Computer Pdf

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Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty ; it is that which answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics.

The computer age introduced a new element to businesses, universities, and a multitude of other organizations: a set of components called the information system , which deals with collecting and organizing data and information. An information system is described as having five components. This is the physical technology that works with information. Hardware can be as small as a smartphone that fits in a pocket or as large as a supercomputer that fills a building. Hardware also includes the peripheral devices that work with computers, such as keyboards, external disk drives, and routers.

Essentials of Information Technology (Computer, Data, Information and Knowledge)

Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information. The term Data Processing DP has also been used to refer to a department within an organization responsible for the operation of data processing applications.

The United States Census Bureau history illustrates the evolution of data processing from manual through electronic procedures. Although widespread use of the term data processing dates only from the nineteen-fifties, [3] data processing functions have been performed manually for millennia.

For example, bookkeeping involves functions such as posting transactions and producing reports like the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Completely manual methods were augmented by the application of mechanical or electronic calculators. A person whose job was to perform calculations manually or using a calculator was called a " computer.

The United States Census schedule was the first to gather data by individual rather than household. A number of questions could be answered by making a check in the appropriate box on the form. From through the Census Bureau employed "a system of tallying, which, by reason of the increasing number of combinations of classifications required, became increasingly complex.

Only a limited number of combinations could be recorded in one tally, so it was necessary to handle the schedules 5 or 6 times, for as many independent tallies. The term automatic data processing was applied to operations performed by means of unit record equipment , such as Herman Hollerith 's application of punched card equipment for the United States Census. Computerized data processing, or Electronic data processing represents a later development, with a computer used instead of several independent pieces of equipment.

The term data processing has mostly been subsumed by the more general term information technology IT. Nevertheless, the terms are approximately synonymous. Commercial data processing involves a large volume of input data, relatively few computational operations, and a large volume of output.

For example, an insurance company needs to keep records on tens or hundreds of thousands of policies, print and mail bills, and receive and post payments. In science and engineering, the terms data processing and information systems are considered too broad, and the term data processing is typically used for the initial stage followed by a data analysis in the second stage of the overall data handling. Data analysis uses specialized algorithms and statistical calculations that are less often observed in a typical general business environment.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Data processing disambiguation. Main article: Electronic data processing. Main article: Data analysis. Retrieved June 24, Data Processing and Information Technology 10th ed. Dictionary of Computing. Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 26, The development of punch card tabulation in the Bureau of the Census, United States Department of Commerce. Paul; Curry, James P. United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved April 28, Categories : Data processing Computer data.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Data processing.

Difference between Information and Data

The words Data and Information may look similar and many people use these words very frequently, But both have lots of differences between them. It is not enough to have data such as statistics on the economy. Data themselves are fairly useless, but when these data are interpreted and processed to determine its true meaning, they becomes useful and can be named as Information. Information is data that has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful to the person who receives it. Data is the term, that may be new to beginners, but it is very interesting and simple to understand. It can be anything like name of a person or a place or a number etc.

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Data procesing refers to the transformating raw data into meaningful output. Data Input - the collected data is converted into machine-readable form by an input device, and send into the machine. Processing is the transformation of the input data to a more meaningful form information in the CPU. Output is the production of the required information, which may be input in future. Data capture is the process of obtaining data in a computer-sensible form for at the point of origin the source document itself is prepared in a machine-sensible form for input. Relevance of the term garbage in garbage out GIGO in reference to errors in data processing.

Computers, Data and Information

Data and information are similar concepts, but they are not the same thing. The main difference between data and information is that data are a part and information is the whole. Explore how data and information differ through definitions and examples.

5 Components of Information Systems

Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which should be suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine. Information is organized or classified data, which has some meaningful values for the receiver.

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Когда запыхавшийся сотрудник лаборатории безопасности завопил о вирусе, Стратмор, столкнувшийся с ним на лестнице служебного помещения, попытался наставить его на путь истинный. Но Чатрукьян отказывался прислушаться к голосу разума. У нас вирус. Я звоню Джаббе. Когда он попытался обойти Стратмора, тот преградил ему дорогу.

Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов. Сьюзан сделала еще несколько шагов и вдруг поняла, что это за предмет. В руке Хейл сжимал беретту.

4 Response
  1. JГ©rГґme D.

    “Data: Natural language: facts given, from which others may be deduced, inferred​. Info. Processing and computer science: signs or symbols, especially for.

  2. Michelle N.

    Fundamentals of data structures in python by ellis horowitz pdf free download the cambridge introduction to theatre and literature of the absurd pdf

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