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The program listings if any may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. Scanning and Parsing 3. Evolution af OS Funct 2 9. Process Synchronization Interprocess Messages in Unix These are followed by chapters on Assemblers, Macro processors, Compilers and interpreters, and Linkers.

Apart from this, some parts of the text have been completely rewritten and new defini- tions, examples, figures, sections added and exercises and bibliographies updated. New sections on user interfaces, resource instance and resource request models and distributed. Feedback from readers, preferably by email dmd cse. We use the term semantics to represent the rules of meaning of a domain, and the term semantic gap to represent the difference between the semantics of two domains.

The software engineering steps aimed at the use of a PL can be grouped into 1. Specification, design and coding steps 2. PL implementation steps. Software implementation using a PL introduces a new domain, the PL domain.

The semantic gap between the application domain and the execution domain is bridged by the software engineering steps. The first step bridges the gap between the application and PL domains, while the second step bridges the gap between the PL and execution domains.

We refer to the gap between the application and PL do mains as the specification-and-design gap ot simply the specification gap. The specification gap is bridged by the software development team, while the execution gap is bridged by the designer of the programming language processor, viz. Specification Execution sp ep lication Execution main domain domain Fig.

The gap tobe bridged by the software designer is now between the application domain and the PL domain rather than between the application domain and the execution domain. This reduces the severity of the consequences of semantic gap mentioned earlier, Further, apart from bridging the gap between the PL and execution domains, the language processor provides a diagnostic capability which detects and indicates errors in its input. This helps in improving the quality of the software.

We shall discuss the diagnostic function of language processors in Chapters 3 and 6. A specification written in an SL is a program in SL. The specification language of the PL domain is the PL itself. The specification language of the execu- tion domain is the machine language of the computer system.

We restrict the use of the term execution gap to situations where one of the two specification languages is closer to the machine language of a computer system. In other situations, the term. Language processors Definition 1. We refer to the program form input to a language processor as the source program and to its output as the farget program. The languages in which these programs are written are called source language and target language, tespec- tively.

A language processor typically abandons generation of the target program if it detects errors in the source program, A spectrum of language processors is defined to meet practical requirements. A language translator bridges an execution gap to the machine language or assembly language of a computer system. An assembler is a language transla- tor whose source language is assembly language. A compiler is any language translator which is not an assembler.

A detranslator bridges the same execution gap as the language translator, but in the reverse direction. A preprocessor is a language processor which bridges an execution gap but is not a language translator. A language migrator bridges the specification gap between two PLs. Example 1. The target programs are the C program and the machine language program, respectively.

In the classification arising from Definition 1. This leads to many similarities between trans- lators and interpreters. From a practical viewpoint many differences also exist be- tween translators and interpreters. In essence, the execution gap vanishes totally, Figure 1. Thus, the spec- ification language of the PL domain is identical with the specification language of the interpreter domain. We discuss principles of interpretation in Section 1.

Fig, L4 Interpreter Problem oriented and procedure oriented languages The three consequences of the semantic gap mentioned at the start of this section are in fact the consequences of a specification gap.

Software systems are poor in quality and require large amounts of time and effort te develop duc to difficulties in bridging the specification gap. A classical solution is to develop a PL such that the PL domain is very close or identical to the application domain.

PL features now directly model aspects of the application domain, which leads to a very small specification gap see Fig. Such PLs can only be used for specific applications, hence they are called problem oriented languages. They have large execution gaps, however this is acceptable because the gap is bridged by the translator or interpreter and does not concem the software designer.

We name these activi- ties as 1. Program generation activities 2. Program execution activities. A program generation activity aims at automatic generation of a program. The source Janguage is a specification language of an application domain and the target language is typically a procedure oriented PL.

A program execution activity organizes the execution of a program written in a PL on a computer system. Its source language could be a procedure oriented language or a problem oriented language.

Program Generation Figure 1. In effect, the program generator introduces a new domain between the application and PL domains see Fig. We call this the program generator domain. The specification gap is now the gap between the appli- cation domain and the program generator domain. This gap is smaller than the gap between the application domain and the target PL domain.

Since the generator domain is close to the application domain, it is easy for the designer or programmer to write the specification of the program to be generated. This arrangement also reduces the testing effort.

Proving the correctness of the pro- gram generator amounts to proving the correctness of the transformation of Fig. This would be performed while implementing the generator. To test an application generated by using the generator, it is necessary to only verify the correctness of the specification input to the program generator, This is a much simpler task than ver- ifying correctness of the generated program.

This task can be further simplified by providing a good diagnostic i. This is because a problem oriented language suffers a very large execution gap between the PL domain and the execution domain see Fig.

The execution gap between the target PL domain and the execution domain is bridged by the compiler or interpreter for the PL. It displays the field headings and default values for various fields in the screen and accepts data values for the ticlds.

Figure 1. A data entry operator can move the cursor to a field and key in its value, The screen handling program accepts the value and stores it in a data base. A screen generator generates screen handling programs, Tt accepts a specification of the screen to be generated we will call it the sereen spec and generates a program that performs the desired screen handling.

D.m. Dhamdhere D.m. Dhamdhere - Systems Programming And Operating Systems

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