File Name: material science and engineering notes.zip
- Material Science and Engineering Notes
- EN380: Naval Material Science and Engineering
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Material Science and Engineering Notes
Download Free PDF. Material science complete notes B. Harish Bhatia. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. This relatively new scientific field involves studying materials through the materials paradigm synthesis, structure, properties and performance.
It incorporates elements of physics and chemistry, and is at the forefront of nano science and nanotechnology research. In recent years, materials science has become more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering.
Importance of Materials A material is defined as a substance most often a solid, but other condensed phases can be included that is intended to be used for certain applications. There are a myriad of materials around us—they can be found in anything from buildings to spacecrafts. Materials can generally be divided into two classes: crystalline and non-crystalline. The traditional examples of materials are metals, ceramics and polymers. New and advanced materials that are being developed include semiconductors, nanomaterials, biomaterials etc.
The material of choice of a given era is often a defining point. Originally deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science.
Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and likely ceramics and the use of fire. A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, and silica and carbon materials, used in the construction of space vehicles enabling the exploration of space.
Materials science has driven, and been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as plastics, semiconductors, and biomaterials. The field has since broadened to include every class of materials, including ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, magnetic materials, medical implant materials, biological materials and nanomaterials materiomics. Historical Perspective Materials are so important in the development of civilization that we associate ages with them.
In the origin of human life on earth, the Stone Age, people used only natural materials like stone, clay, skins, and wood. When people found copper and how to make it harder by alloying, the Bronze Age started about BC. The use of iron and steel, stronger materials that gave advantage in wars started at about BC. The next big step was the discovery of a cheap process to make steel around , which enabled the railroads and the building of the modern infrastructure of the industrial world.
Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? All engineering disciplines need to know about materials. Even the most immaterial like software or system engineering depend on the development of new materials, which in turn alter the economics, like software-hardware trade-offs. Increasing applications of system engineering are in materials manufacturing industrial engineering and complex environmental systems.
Classification of Materials Like many other things, materials are classified in groups, so that our brain can handle the complexity. One could classify them according to structure, or properties, or use. Metals are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat well and are opaque to light shiny if polished. Examples: aluminum, steel, brass, gold.
Semiconductors: The bonding is covalent electrons are shared between atoms. Their electrical properties depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of contaminants.
They are opaque to visible light but transparent to the infrared. Examples: Si, Ge, GaAs. Ceramics: Atoms behave mostly like either positive or negative ions, and are bound by Coulomb forces between them. They are usually combinations of metals or semiconductors with oxygen, nitrogen or carbon oxides, nitrides, and carbides. Examples: glass, porcelain, many minerals. Polymers: are bound by covalent forces and also by weak van der Waals forces, and usually based on H, C and other non-metallic elements.
They decompose at moderate temperatures — C , and are lightweight. Other properties vary greatly. Examples: plastics nylon, teflon, polyester and rubber. Other categories are not based on bonding. A particular microstructure identifies Composites: Composites made of different materials in intimate contact example: fiberglass, concrete, wood to achieve specific properties.
Biomaterials can be any type of material that is biocompatible and used, for instance, to replace human body parts. Advanced Materials Materials used in "High-Tec" applications, usually designed for maximum performance, and normally expensive.
Examples are titanium alloys for supersonic airplanes, magnetic alloys for computer disks, special ceramics for the heat shield of the space shuttle, etc. Thomson in Thomson had discovered the electron in The plum pudding model was abandoned after discovery of the atomic nucleus.
The plum pudding model of the atom is also known as the "Blueberry Muffin" model. In this model, the atom is composed of electrons which Thomson still called "corpuscles", though G.
Stoney had proposed that atoms of electricity be called electrons in surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electrons' negative charges, like negatively charged "raisins" surrounded by positively charged "pudding". The electrons as we know them today were thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many structures possible for positioning multiple electrons, particularly rotating rings of electrons see below.
Instead of a soup, the atom was also sometimes said to have had a "cloud" of positive charge. With this model, Thomson abandoned his earlier "nebular atom" hypothesis in which the atom was composed of immaterial vortices. Now, at least part of the atom was to be composed of Thomson's particulate negative "corpuscles", although the rest of the positively charged part of the atom remained somewhat nebulous and ill-defined.
The Thomson model was disproved by the gold foil experiment of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. This was interpreted by Ernest Rutherford in to imply a very small nucleus of the atom containing a very high positive charge in the case of gold, enough to balance about electrons , thus leading to the Rutherford model of the atom. Although gold has an atomic number of 79, immediately after Rutherford's paper appeared in Antonius Van den Broek made the intuitive suggestion that atomic number is nuclear charge.
The matter required experiment to decide. Henry Moseley's work showed experimentally in see Moseley's law that the effective nuclear charge was very close to the atomic number Moseley found only one unit difference , and Moseley referenced only the papers of Van den Broek and Rutherford.
Bohr had also inspired Moseley's work. Thomson's model was compared though not by Thomson to a British dessert called plum pudding, hence the name. Thomson's paper was published in the March edition of the Philosophical Magazine, the leading British science journal of the day. In Thomson's view: the atoms of the elements consist of a number of negatively electrified corpuscles enclosed in a sphere of uniform positive electrification. In this model, the electrons were free to rotate within the blob or cloud of positive substance.
These orbits were stabilized in the model by the fact that when an electron moved farther from the center of the positive cloud, it felt a larger net positive inward force, because there was more material of opposite charge, inside its orbit see Gauss's law.
In Thomson's model, electrons were free to rotate in rings which were further stabilized by interactions between the electrons, and spectra were to be accounted for by energy differences of different ring orbits. Thomson attempted to make his model account for some of the major spectral lines known for some elements, but was not notably successful at this. Still, Thomson's model along with a similar Saturnian ring model for atomic electrons, also put forward in by Nagaoka after James Clerk Maxwell's model of Saturn's rings , were earlier harbingers of the later and more successful solar-system-like Bohr model of the atom.
Rutherford model Rutherford overturned Thomson's model in with his well-known gold foil experiment in which he demonstrated that the atom has a tiny, heavy nucleus. Rutherford designed an experiment to use the alpha particles emitted by a radioactive element as probes to the unseen world of atomic structure. Rutherford presented his own physical model for subatomic structure, as an interpretation for the unexpected experimental results.
In this May paper, Rutherford only commits himself to a small central region of very high positive or negative charge in the atom. From purely energetic considerations of how far particles of known speed would be able to penetrate toward a central charge of e, Rutherford was able to calculate that the radius of his gold central charge would need to be less how much less could not be told than 3.
The Rutherford model served to concentrate a great deal of the atom's charge and mass to a very small core, but didn't attribute any structure to the remaining electrons and remaining atomic mass. It did mention the atomic model of Hantaro Nagaoka, in which the electrons are arranged in one or more rings, with the specific metaphorical structure of the stable rings of Saturn.
The plum pudding model of J. Thomson also had rings of orbiting electrons. Jean Baptiste Perrin claimed in his Nobel Lecture that he was the first one to suggest the model in his paper dated For gold, this mass number is not then known to great accuracy and was therefore modeled by Rutherford to be possibly u. Thus, Rutherford did not formally suggest the two numbers periodic table place, 79, and nuclear charge, 98 or might be exactly the same.
Given this experimental data, Rutherford naturally considered a planetary-model atom, the Rutherford model of — electrons orbiting a solar nucleus — however, said planetary- model atom has a technical difficulty. The laws of classical mechanics i. Because the electron would lose energy, it would rapidly spiral inwards, collapsing into the nucleus on a timescale of around 16 picoseconds.
This atom model is disastrous, because it predicts that all atoms are unstable. Also, as the electron spirals inward, the emission would rapidly increase in frequency as the orbit got smaller and faster. This would produce a continuous smear, in frequency, of electromagnetic radiation. However, late 19th century experiments with electric discharges have shown that atoms will only emit light that is, electromagnetic radiation at certain discrete frequencies.
To overcome this difficulty, Niels Bohr proposed, in , what is now called the Bohr model of the atom. He suggested that electrons could only have certain classical motions: 1.
EN380: Naval Material Science and Engineering
By Patrick J Shamberger. View Courses. Fundamental principles of materials science and engineering and their application toward complex engineering challenges; relationship between materials structure and structural and functional properties of engineered materials; property-performance relationships; principle classes of materials, as illustrated through key materials advances; current directions in the field. These have been applied to a range of problems on both natural geological and engineered systems. His areas of focus at AFRL were in the areas of plasma-assisted deposition processes for high-mobility nanocrystalline oxide films, and in reducing the variability of oxide-based resistance switches. Previous efforts have included development of rapid, low-temperature thermal storage based on phase change, physisorption, and chemical dissociation processes. Patrick Shamberger received his Ph.
Constitution of Alloys : Necessity of alloying, types of solid solutions, Hume Rotherys rules, intermediate alloy phases, and electron compounds. Equilibrium of Diagrams : Experimental methods of construction of equilibrium diagrams, Isomorphous alloy systems, equilibrium cooling and heating of alloys, Lever rule, coring miscibility gaps, eutectic systems, congruent melting intermediate phases, peritectic reaction. Transformations in the solid state — allotropy, eutectoid, peritectoid reactions, phase rule, relationship between equilibrium diagrams and properties of alloys. Classification of steels, structure and properties of plain carbon steels, Low alloy steels, Hadfield manganese steels, tool and die steels. Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys : Structure and properties of copper and its alloys, Aluminium and its alloys, Titanium and its alloys. Ceramic materials : Crystalline ceramics, glasses, cermaets, abrasive materials, nanomaterials — definition, properties and applications of the above.
File Type PDF. Material Science. Engineering Notes. Note for Material. Science - MS By. Ranu Singh |. LectureNotes. Shaoyi Jiang, ChEME. Ph.D. '93, Boeing-.
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These handwritten notes are of EasyEngineering Team Collection. This Study Materials contains all the formulae and important theoretical aspects of Material Science subject. You all must have this kind of questions in your mind.
The combined knowledge of materials from materials science and materials engineering enable engineers to convert materials into products needed by the society. Solid materials have conveniently been grouped into three basic classifications, namely, i metallic materials ii polymeric materials, and iii ceramics materials: based primarily on chemical make-up and atomic structure. Metallic materials are normally combination of one or more metallic elements and may also contain some non-metallic elements like C, N, O, etc. Metals have a crystalline structure in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly manner.
На нем бесконечно повторялась видеозапись убийства Танкадо. И всякий раз Танкадо хватался за грудь, падал и с выражение ужаса на лице навязывал кольцо ничего не подозревающим туристам. В этом нет никакого смысла, - размышляла. - Если он не знал, что мы его убиваем… Ничего не понятно.
Он преобразовывал послания таким образом, чтобы текст выглядел бессмыслицей. Что, разумеется, было не. Каждое послание состояло из числа букв, равного полному квадрату, - шестнадцати, двадцати пяти, ста - в зависимости оттого, какой объем информации нужно было передать. Цезарь тайно объяснил офицерам, что по получении этого якобы случайного набора букв они должны записать текст таким образом, чтобы он составил квадрат.
ГЛАВА 60 По зеркальному коридору Двухцветный отправился с наружной террасы в танцевальный зал. Остановившись, чтобы посмотреть на свое отражение в зеркале, он почувствовал, что за спиной у него возникла какая-то фигура. Он повернулся, но было уже поздно. Чьи-то стальные руки прижали его лицо к стеклу. Панк попытался высвободиться и повернуться.
У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги. Беккер толкнул двойную дверь и оказался в некотором подобии кабинета. Там было темно, но он разглядел дорогие восточные ковры и полированное красное дерево. На противоположной стене висело распятие в натуральную величину. Беккер остановился.
- Слово разница особенно важно. Главная разница между Хиросимой и Нагасаки. По-видимому, Танкадо считал, что два эти события чем-то различались между. Выражение лица Фонтейна не изменилось. Но надежда быстро улетучивалась.
Проваливал бы ты отсюда. - Я ищу одного человека. - Знать ничего не знаю.
Надеюсь, ты помнишь, что мы помолвлены. - Сьюзан - вздохнул он - Я не могу сейчас об этом говорить, внизу ждет машина. Я позвоню и все объясню. - Из самолета? - повторила. - Что происходит.