File Name: security and ethics in computer science .zip
There are various types of malware including spyware, keyloggers, true viruses, worms, or any type of malicious code that infiltrates a computer. Phishing involves sending emails that appear to come from reliable sources such as banks and that try to get users to reveal confidential banking information, which is then used fraudulently.
Barquin as a means to create "a set of standards to guide and instruct people in the ethical use of computers. The commandments have been widely quoted in computer ethics literature  but also have been criticized by both the hacker community  and some in academia. For instance, Dr. Ben Fairweather of the "Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility" has described them as "simplistic" and overly restrictive. ISC2 , one of the thought leaders in the information security industry, has referred to the commandments in developing its own ethics rules.
Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
The following issues are examples of security problems that an organization may have to deal with:. The foundation of all security systems is formed by the moral principles and practices of those people involved and the standards of the profession. That is, while people are part of the solution, they are also most the problem.
It is easy to sensationalize these topics with real horror stories; it is more difficult to deal with the underlying ethical issues involved. Computers can be used symbolically to intimidate, deceive or defraud victims. Attorneys, government agencies, and businesses increasingly use mounds of computer generated data quite legally to confound their audiences.
Criminals also find useful phony invoices, bills, and checks generated by the computer. The computer lends an ideal cloak for carrying out criminal acts by imparting a clean quality to the crime. The computer has made the invasion of our privacy a great deal easier and potentially more dangerous than before the advent of the computer. These files hold banking information, credit information, organizational fundraising, opinion polls, shop at home services, driver license data, arrest records, and medical records.
The potential threats to privacy include the improper commercial use of computerized data, breaches of confidentiality by releasing confidential data to third parties, and the release of records to governmental agencies for investigative purposes. The basic law that protects our privacy is the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which mandates that people have a right to be secure in homes and against unreasonable search and seizure.
In addition, many laws have been enacted to protect the individual from having damaging information stored in computerized databases.
That is, users may legally create a backup copy of software if it is to be held in an archive. If the software purchased is actually leased, you may in fact not even be able to make backup copies of the software.
The distinction between leasing and buying is contained within the software documentation. The copyright statement is also contained in the software documentation. The copyright laws regarding leased material state that the leasor may say what the leaseholder can and cannot do with the software.
So it is entirely up to the owner of the software as to whether or not users may make backup copies of the software. The software industry is prepared to do battle against software piracy. The courts are dealing with an increasing number of lawsuits concerning the protection of software. The computer can create a unique environment in which unauthorized activities can occur. Crimes in this category have many traditional names including theft, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, etc.
Computer-related fraud includes the introduction of fraudulent records into a computer system, theft of money by electronic means, theft of financial instruments, theft of services, and theft of valuable data. Under the UCC, an express warranty is an affirmation or promise of product quality to the buyer and becomes a part of the basis of the bargain.
Promises and affirmations made by the software developer to the user about the nature and quality of the program can also be classified as an express warranty. Programmers or retailers possess the right to define express warranties.
Every word they say may be as legally effective as though stated in writing. Thus, to protect against liability, all agreements should be in writing. These are warranties that are provided automatically in every sale. These warranties need not be in writing nor do they need to be verbally stated.
They ensure that a good title will pass to the buyer, that the product is fit for the purpose sold, and that it is fit for the ordinary purposes for which similar goods are used merchantability. A patent can protect the unique and secret aspects of an idea. It is very difficult to obtain a patent compared to copyright please see discussion below. With computer software, complete disclosure is required; the patent holder must disclose the complete details of a program to allow a skilled programmer to build the program.
Moreover, a United States software patent will be unenforceable in most other countries. Copyright law provides a very significant legal tool for use in protecting computer software, both before a security breach and certainly after a security breach. This type of breach could deal with the misappropriation of data, computer programs, documentation, or similar material.
Copyright law in the United States is governed by the Copyright Act of that preempted the field from the states. Formerly, the United States had a dual state and federal system. In other countries, such as Canada, the courts have held that the un-revised Copyright Act is broad enough to protect computer programs. In many of these countries, the reform of copyright law is actively underway. A trade secret protects something of value and usefulness.
Computers have been shot, stabbed, short-circuited, and bombed. I Corporate Resource II Basic Problems III Ethical Issues I Ethics II Environment III Physical IV Data I Planning III Ethics and Professionalism IV Personnel Security V Physical Security VI System Security IX Control and Audit I Underlying Problem I Overview II System Sensitivity III Security Requirements IV Levels of Security V Data Life Cycles II Threats III Countermeasures II Development of Security Program III Risk Analysis IV Contingency Planning V Legal Issues for Managers III Ethical Issues.
5 Legal and Ethical Issues in IT
Keeping data safe is very important for many reasons. There can be very confidential details that people want to keep safe. Data can be corrupted or deleted either through accidental or through malicious act. There are many ways to keep data safe. Hacking is breaking into a computer system and stealing the users data without consent. However there can be ethical hacking which is when a company or people hire ethical hackers to try to break into the safety system to make sure if it is safe and if they need to change it. Cracking is where someone edits a program source code.
The following issues are examples of security problems that an organization may have to deal with:. The foundation of all security systems is formed by the moral principles and practices of those people involved and the standards of the profession. That is, while people are part of the solution, they are also most the problem. It is easy to sensationalize these topics with real horror stories; it is more difficult to deal with the underlying ethical issues involved. Computers can be used symbolically to intimidate, deceive or defraud victims.
Ethics are a structure of standards and practices that influence how people lead their lives. It is not strictly implemented to follow these ethics, but it is basically for the benefit of everyone that we do. Ethics are unlike laws that legally mandate what is right or wrong. Privacy concerns, intellectual property rights and effects on the society are some of the common issues of computer ethics. GCSE Ethics Resources years An editable PowerPoint lesson presentation Editable revision handouts A glossary which covers the key terminologies of the module Topic mindmaps for visualising the key concepts Printable flashcards to help students engage active recall and confidence-based repetition A quiz with accompanying answer key to test knowledge and understanding of the module View GCSE Ethics Resources.
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Reference to the words profession and ethics in the media is becoming increasingly common as is the incidence of litigation and exposure by individuals and businesses alike to information technology. Yet, the meaning of the terms profession and ethics remains nebulous for most of us. One of the outcomes arising from the recent Y2K situation was an enhanced awareness by society at large of its dependence on IT systems. Y2K also focussed a spotlight on those working in the IT industry with an expectation that they perform their work in a professional manner.
Computer ethics is a part of practical philosophy concerned with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Maner noticed ethical concerns that were brought up during his Medical Ethics course at Old Dominion University became more complex and difficult when the use of technology and computers became involved. The concept of computer ethics originated in the s with MIT professor Norbert Wiener , the American mathematician and philosopher. While working on anti-aircraft artillery during World War II , Wiener and his fellow engineers developed a system of communication between the part of a cannon that tracked a warplane, the part that performed calculations to estimate a trajectory, and the part responsible for firing.
Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the behavior of an individual or group of people. Computer ethics is the application of moral principles to the use of computers and the Internet. Examples include intellectual property rights, privacy policies, and online etiquette, or " netiquette ". Computers make it easy to duplicate and redistribute digital content.
Honesty is the underlying principle for all computer use. At one extreme, significant violations of academic integrity may result in penalties including dismissal from the university.
This chapter reviews ethical aspects of computer and information security and privacy. After an introduction to ethical approaches to information technology, the focus is first on ethical aspects of computer security. These include the moral importance of computer security, the relation between computer security and national security, the morality of hacking and computer crime, the nature of cyberterrorism and information warfare, and the moral responsibilities of information security professionals. Privacy is discussed next.
Describe the types of computer security risks Discuss the types of devices available that protect computers from system failure. Identify ways to safeguard against computer Explain the options available for backing up viruses, worms, Trojan horses, denial of computer resources service attacks, back doors, and spoofing. Identify risks and safeguards associated with Discuss techniques to prevent unauthorized wireless communications computer access and use.
Сьюзан также сообщила, что интерес к криптографии появился у нее еще в школе, в старших классах. Президент компьютерного клуба, верзила из восьмого класса Фрэнк Гут-манн, написал ей любовные стихи и зашифровал их, подставив вместо букв цифры. Сьюзан упрашивала его сказать, о чем в них говорилось, но он, кокетничая, отказывался. Тогда она взяла послание домой и всю ночь просидела под одеялом с карманным фонариком, пытаясь раскрыть секрет.
Конечно. Но я думаю, что одно с другим может быть связано самым непосредственным образом. Сьюзан отказывалась его понимать.
Нет! - взорвался Джабба. - Это плохо. Это очень и очень плохо. - Спокойствие, - потребовал Фонтейн. - На какие же параметры нацелен этот червь.
Он открыл рот, чтобы что-то сказать, но сделать этого не успел. Когда Хейл перестал на нее давить, Сьюзан почувствовала, что ее онемевшие ноги ожили. Еще толком не отдавая себе отчета в своих действиях и повинуясь инстинкту, она резким движением согнула ноги и со всей силы ударила Хейла коленом в промежность, ощутив, как ее коленные чашечки впились в его мягкие незащищенные ткани. Хейл взвыл от боли, и все его тело сразу же обмякло.
Кроме тридцати футов ого стола красного дерева с буквами АНБ в центре столешницы, выложенной из черных пластинок вишневого и орехового дерева, комнату украшали три акварели Мариона Пайка, ваза с листьями папоротника, мраморная барная стойка и, разумеется, бачок для охлаждения воды фирмы Спарклетс. Мидж налила себе стакан воды, надеясь, что это поможет ей успокоиться. Делая маленькие глотки, она смотрела в окно. Лунный свет проникал в комнату сквозь приоткрытые жалюзи, отражаясь от столешницы с затейливой поверхностью. Мидж всегда думала, что директорский кабинет следовало оборудовать здесь, а не в передней части здания, где он находился.