File Name: culture and economics on values economics and international business .zip
- 7.2 – Globalization and International Trade
- The importance of international trade
- What is International Business?
- Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home
7.2 – Globalization and International Trade
Why should businesses care about the different political and legal systems around the world? To begin with, despite the globalization of business, firms must abide by the local rules and regulations of the countries in which they operate. Until recently, governments were able to directly enforce the rules and regulations based on their political and legal philosophies. The Internet has started to change this, as sellers and buyers have easier access to each other. Nevertheless, countries still have the ability to regulate or strong-arm companies into abiding by their rules and regulations. As a result, global businesses monitor and evaluate the political and legal climate in countries in which they currently operate or hope to operate in the future. The study of political systems is extensive and complex.
The importance of international trade
Globalization - Approaches to Diversity. Transnational flows of people, financial resources, goods, information and culture have recently been increasing in a drastic way and have profoundly transformed the world Ritzer and Malone, This phenomenon has been labeled globalization. As a result, a great deal of debate and discussion, even controversy Bird and Stevens, has taken place about globalization in various disciplines from different angles. In fact, there seems to be a controversy in regards to globalization and the contradictory meanings associated with it.
What is International Business?
International business encompasses all commercial activities that take place to promote the transfer of goods, services, resources, people, ideas, and technologies across national boundaries. The study of international business involves understanding the effects that the above activities have on domestic and foreign markets, countries, governments, companies, and individuals. Successful international businesses recognize the diversity of the world marketplace and are able to cope with the uncertainties and risks of doing business in a continually changing global market.
International trade between different countries is an important factor in raising living standards, providing employment and enabling consumers to enjoy a greater variety of goods. International trade has occurred since the earliest civilisations began trading, but in recent years international trade has become increasingly important with a larger share of GDP devoted to exports and imports. With an increased importance of trade, there have also been growing concerns about the potential negative effects of trade — in particular, the unbalanced benefits with some losing out, despite overall net gains. Some countries are naturally abundant in raw materials — oil Qatar , metals, fish Iceland , Congo diamonds Butter New Zealand.
International trade is an exchange of goods or services across national jurisdictions. Inbound trade is defined as imports, and outbound trade is defined as exports. International trade is subject to the regulatory oversight and taxation of the involved nations, namely through customs.
Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home
Cultural economics is the branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes. Here, 'culture' is defined by shared beliefs and preferences of respective groups. Programmatic issues include whether and how much culture matters as to economic outcomes and what its relation is to institutions. Applications include the study of religion ,  social capital,  social norms,  social identity ,  fertility ,  beliefs in redistributive justice ,  ideology ,  hatred,  terrorism ,  trust ,  family ties,  long-term orientation,   and the culture of economics. Dawlabani added the value systems approach to the cultural emergence aspect of macroeconomics. Cultural economics develops from how wants and tastes are formed in society.
Without a backdrop of shared attitudes, and without familiar laws and judicial procedures that define standards of ethical conduct, certainty is elusive. Should a company invest in a foreign country where civil and political rights are violated? If companies in developed countries shift facilities to developing nations that lack strict environmental and health regulations, or if those companies choose to fill management and other top-level positions in a host nation with people from the home country, whose standards should prevail? Even the best-informed, best-intentioned executives must rethink their assumptions about business practice in foreign settings. Such difficulties are unavoidable for businesspeople who live and work abroad. But how can managers resolve the problems?
Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization , as well as the general term of globalization. It is the increasing economic integration and interdependence of national, regional, and local economies across the world through an intensification of cross-border movement of goods, services, technologies and capital. While economic globalization has been expanding since the emergence of trans-national trade , it has grown at an increased rate due to improvements in the efficiency of long-distance transportation, advances in telecommunication , the importance of information rather than physical capital in the modern economy, and by developments in science and technology. International commodity markets , labor markets , and capital markets make up the economy and define economic globalization. Beginning as early as BCE, people in Syria were trading livestock, tools, and other items.
It involves cross-border transactions of goods and services between two or more countries. Transactions of economic resources include capital, skills, and people for the purpose of the international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, and construction. International business is also known as globalization. To conduct business overseas, multinational companies need to bridge separate national markets into one global marketplace. There are two macro-scale factors that underline the trend of greater globalization.
Слушай, я хотел спросить, - заговорил. - Что ты думаешь об этом не поддающемся взлому алгоритме, который, по словам Танкадо, он хотел создать. У Сьюзан свело желудок.
ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты. - Хорошо. Полагаю, вы получили обе копии ключа.
Клушар проснулся лишь на несколько секунд. Он успел бы вскрикнуть от боли, если бы сильная рука не зажала ему рот. Старик не мог даже пошевелиться.
Сиди себе в заднем салоне и докуривай окурки. Хорошенькая картинка. Беккер застонал и провел рукой по волосам. - Когда он вылетает.
- И что же ты ответила. Она ткнула его в ногу носком туфли.
Думаю. У нас есть кое-какие данные. Танкадо неоднократно публично заявлял, что у него есть партнер.
Нуматака проследовал прямо на коммутатор компании. Все звонки принимались единственным оператором на двенадцатиканальный терминал Коренсо-2000. Телефонистка, державшая трубку у уха, мгновенно поднялась и поклонилась, увидев босса.
Он пригрозил, что в случае нечестной игры его партнер обнародует пароль, и тогда все эти фирмы сойдутся в схватке за то, что перестало быть секретом. - Умно, - сказала Сьюзан. Стратмор продолжал: - Несколько раз Танкадо публично называл имя своего партнера. North Dakota.
Присяга, которую Чатрукьян принимал, поступая на службу в АНБ, стала непроизвольно прокручиваться в его голове. Он поклялся применять все свои знания, весь опыт, всю интуицию для защиты компьютеров агентства, стоивших не один миллион долларов.