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- Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India
- Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: a potential pandemic threat
- Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview
Nilendu Sarma Department of Dermatology, Dr. Daszak P, Cunningham AA.
Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India
Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. The microbial world is complex, dynamic and constantly evolving. Infectious agents reproduce rapidly, mutate frequently, cross the species barrier between animal hosts and humans, and adapt with relative ease to their new environments. Because of these traits, infectious agents are able to alter their epidemiology, their virulence, and their susceptibility to anti-infective drugs.
The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action.
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: a potential pandemic threat
There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world. Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas. The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels. Their control requires continuing surveillance, research and training, better diagnostic facilities and improved public health system.
Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases EIDs and neglected tropical infectious diseases.
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Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview
Infectious diseases continue to impose unpredictable burdens on global health and economies, a subject that requires constant research and updates. The results show that wild animals mainly bats, birds and primates play an important role in the dissemination of etiological agents mainly viruses, as a new coronavirus called Novel Coronavirus in extensive geographic regions. Moreover, these wild animal organisms can act as the site for essential biotic synergy among several pathogenic microorganisms, promoting a higher rate of adaptation, mutation and even genetic recombination, with consequent stimulation of new strains and subtypes, inducing new infectious agents with unknown virulent potential.
Infectious viral diseases are the never-ending challenge that can emerge or re-emerge in unpredictable regions and at unpredictable times. Human beings are facing an intractable problem in unexpected time and place due to these viral diseases. Human, ecological, and viral related factors are the contributing factors in the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease.
Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases.
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Нам нужны указания. ГЛАВА 114 - Обыщите их еще раз! - потребовал директор. В отчаянии он наблюдал за тем, как расплывчатые фигуры агентов обыскивают бездыханные тела в поисках листка бумаги с беспорядочным набором букв и цифр. - О мой Бог! - Лицо Джаббы мертвенно побледнело.
Этого не может. Росио игриво улыбнулась и кивнула на немца. - El queria que lo guardara. Он хотел его оставить, но я сказала. Во мне течет цыганская кровь, мы, цыганки, не только рыжеволосые, но еще и очень суеверные.
Сьюзан, - умоляюще произнес Стратмор, не выпуская ее из рук. - Я все объясню. Она попыталась высвободиться. Коммандер не отпускал. Она попробовала закричать, но голос ей не повиновался.
Комната служила гордым напоминанием о тех временах: доспехи, гравюры на военные сюжеты и золотые слитки из Нового Света за стеклом.
Выслушав подробности, он долго молчал. Дэвид, - сказал наконец Стратмор мрачным голосом, - обнаружение этого кольца - вопрос национальной безопасности. Я возлагаю эту задачу на .
- Ему трудно было говорить - наверное потому, что он не был уверен, что его появлению рады. - Сэр, мне кажется… что с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ какая-то проблема. Стратмор закрыл дверцу холодильника и без тени волнения взглянул на Чатрукьяна.
Что случилось, Сью. У тебя ужасный вид. Сьюзан подавила поднимающуюся волну страха. В нескольких метрах от нее ярко светился экран Хейла.
Разница равна трем. Он медленно потянул к себе микрофон.