File Name: job analysis job description and job specification .zip
Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management.
Members may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization. Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way e. This toolkit reviews how job analysis can be used to identify the knowledge, skills and expertise required to effectively perform job assignments, establish criteria for selection and promotions, design objectives for training and development programs, develop the standards for the measurement of performance, and assist with the determination of pay classification levels. Job analysis is the process of studying a job to determine which activities and responsibilities it includes, its relative importance to other jobs, the qualifications necessary for performance of the job and the conditions under which the work is performed.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. This lecture introduces the concepts of job analysis, job design and quality of work life. It starts with job analysis and examines the collection of data for the purposes of job analysis, the methods of job analysis, problems that might be encountered, and the use of job analysis in relation to other HRM functions.
There will be some issues of job design and the characteristics that should be considered when designing any job. The final section looks at the quality of work life and the use of quality circles to improve employee job satisfaction.
Job analysis and job design Job analysis is normally conducted after the job has been designed, the worker has been trained and the work has been performed. It is a snapshot of the job that exists at that time, not what it should be. When to analyse a job Job analysis is generally undertaken: 1. Uses of job analysisThe information produced by job analysis is used extensively in HRM.
For example it is used to effectively hire, train, appraise, compensate or use its human resources. Clarity and simplicity of expression are prerequisites for job descriptions and specifications. Job specificationsThe job specification or person specification is derived from the job description.
It identifies the experience, qualifications, skills, abilities and knowledge, personal qualities and special requirements needed to successfully perform the job. Job descriptions, job specifications and unionsThe language used in writing job descriptions and job specifications is extremely important as it may become part of an award or negotiated agreement involving a union.
Badly written job descriptions and job specifications restrict management's freedom to change job tasks, duties and responsibilities and to assign work to employees. To avoid disputes, it is critical that job descriptions and job specifications be clear, concise and understandable. Criticism of job descriptionsThe traditional job description has been criticised for being a straitjacket suitable only for repetitive work; a static written description that ignores the dynamics of the job.
Job fluidity undermines the effectiveness of traditional job descriptions and means that they risk being out of date and counterproductive as guides for selection, job evaluation and so on.
Thus, job descriptions are seen as being appropriate only for stable, predictable and bureaucratic organisations. Finally, job descriptions are seen as archaic because the traditional job comprising set tasks is disappearing. Project-based work instead of position-based work signals the demise of the traditional job and traditional job description. Competition, technical innovation and changing workplace values have created the need for a work environment where jobs are re-invented totally.
Job analysis can provide the hard evidence of job relatedness and thus help the HR manager to establish organisational adherence to EEO requirements. Practical problems and theoretical criticisms of job analysisSome problems that arise in job analysis are the product of human behaviour, while others stem from the nature of the job analysis method.
Traditional approaches to job analysis are mostly criticised for their basic assumption that jobs are static, and the validity of the job concept itself. Job designJob design is the specification of the content of a job, the material and equipment required to do the job, and the relation of the job to other jobs.
A well-designed job promotes the achievement of the organisation's strategic business objectives by structuring work so it integrates management requirements for efficiency and employee needs for satisfaction. The aim is to integrate people with technology. The employer sets up self-managed work teams who are responsible for accomplishing defined performance objectives. Employees perform better when they perceive their work as being meaningful, have responsibility for outcomes and receive feedback on the results of their activities.
Five core job characteristics are especially important to job design Skills variety -the degree to which a job holder must carry out a variety of different activities and use a number of different personal skills in performing the job 2. Task identity -the degree to which performing a job results in the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work and produces a visible outcome that can be recognised as the result of personal performance.
Task significance -the degree to which a job has a significant impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are co-workers in the same organisation or individuals outside the organisation. Autonomy -the degree to which the job holder has the freedom, independence and discretion necessary to schedule work and to decide which procedures to use in carrying it out.
Feedback -the degree to which performing the activities required by the job provides the employee with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. Quality of work lifeQuality of work life QWL programs incorporate principles of job enrichment and socio-technical enrichment in a comprehensive effort to improve the quality of the work environment. QWL programs especially seek to integrate employee needs and wellbeing with the organisation's desire for higher productivity.
Quality circlesThe exact meaning of quality circles can vary from organisation to organisation and country to country. Quality circles usually consist of small groups of five to ten workers who meet on a regular basis. The objective is to identify problems as a group, process suggestions and examine alternatives for improving at relatively low cost productivity, raising product and service quality, and increasing worker satisfaction.
A short conclusion of this lecture:Job analysis is a fundamental HRM activity. It is the process whereby jobs are studied to determine their tasks, duties and responsibilities, their relationships to other jobs, the conditions under which work is performed and the personal qualities required for satisfactory performance. The products of job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications: job descriptions provide a written summary of the duties and responsibilities of the position; and job specifications focus on the personal characteristics and qualifications that are required to successfully perform the job.
Job design identifies what work must be performed, how it will be performed, where it is to be performed and who will perform it. Job specialisation involves using standardised work procedures and having employees perform repetitive, precisely defined and simplified tasks. Job enlargement, in contrast, seeks to increase the breadth of a job by adding to the variety of tasks to be performed.
Job rotation increases task variety by periodically shifting employees between jobs involving different tasks. Job enrichment builds motivating factors such as achievement, recognition, responsibility and opportunities for personal growth by vertical and horizontal loading.
Autonomous work teams represent job enrichment at the group level. QWL programs represent a comprehensive effort to improve the quality of the work environment by integrating employee needs and wellbeing with the organisation's need for higher productivity.
Quality circles attempt to overcome job specialisation by giving employees the opportunity to participate in the management of their jobs instead of modifying the job content. Some questions for your review What is job analysis? Why is it important? Job analysis is a basic HR activity because it focuses attention on what employees are expected to do. Knowledge about jobs and their requirements is collected through job analysis.
Job analysis may be defined as the process by which jobs are divided to determine what tasks duties and responsibilities they include, their relationships to other jobs, the conditions under which work is performed, and the personal capabilities required for satisfactory performance. In larger organisations, this systematic collection, evaluation, and organisation of job information is done by HR specialists called job analysts.
In smaller organisations it is generally part of the HR Managers job portfolio. Organisations today are becoming more dependent on their human resources. Revolutionary change, complex techniques and global competition mean increasing vulnerability.
Organisations that fail to have the right people in the right place at the right time are at risk. A proper match between work and employee capabilities is now an economic necessity. HR Managers therefore need a good understanding of work and the way it is organised.
Job analysis and job design provide the foundations for this knowledge. What steps are involved in job analysis? Who should be included in the job analysis process? The purpose of job analysis is to obtain answers to such questions as: 1. Why does the job exist? What physical and mental activities does the worker undertake? When is the job to be performed? Where is the job to be performed? How does the worker do the job?
What qualifications are needed to perform the job? What are the job working conditions such as the levels of temperature, light, offensive fumes, and noise 8.
What machinery or equipment is used in the job? What constitutes successful performance? What are some problems you would expect to find in an organisation where jobs have been designed for maximum efficiency without any consideration of employee needs?
Two basic approaches to job analysis exist -a job or task oriented approach and an employee or behaviour oriented approach.
A job oriented approach is concerned with what gets donethe tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job job content. The job oriented approach usually designs jobs for maximum efficiency. In contrast, the employee oriented approach focus is on the human behaviour required ie. This approach has greater consideration for human needs.
Job requirements knowledge skills and abilities can be determined from a description of the job content. A description of knowledge, skills and abilities however, does not permit an identification of tasks, duties and responsibilities. Some of the problems that one would expect in an organisation where jobs are designed for maximum efficiency without any consideration of human needs are low levels of job enrichment poor Quality of Work Life QWL dissatisfaction with work staff turnover low motivation 4.
What are the major uses of job analysis in HRM? The information produced by job analysis is used extensively in HRM. It is difficult to imagine how an organisation could effectively hire, train, appraises, compensate or utilise its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis"1.
Job Descriptions -job descriptions define what a job is by identifying its content, requirements and context.
Performing Job Analysis
Job analysis also known as work analysis  is a family of procedures to identify the content of a job in terms of the activities it involves in addition to the attributes or requirements necessary to perform those activities. Job analysis provides information to organizations that helps them determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs. The process of job analysis involves the analyst gathering information about the duties of the incumbent, the nature and conditions of the work, and some basic qualifications. After this, the job analyst has completed a form called a job psychograph , which displays the mental requirements of the job. This list contains the functional or duty areas of a position, the related tasks, and the basic training recommendations. Subject matter experts incumbents and supervisors for the position being analyzed need to validate this final list in order to validate the job analysis. Job analysis is crucial for first, helping individuals develop their careers, and also for helping organizations develop their employees in order to maximize talent.
The critical difference between job description and job specification is that; former is the summary of all the task, role and responsibilities specifying what the company is offering to the candidate. Whereas, the latter is an overview of all the attributes, experience and qualification which the company is looking for in a candidate to pursue the job. Job analysis refers to the identification of the vacant job position and description of the task, duties, role, responsibilities and job title along with related requirements. It includes skills, qualification, knowledge and experience a person must possess to fill up that position. Basis Job Description Job Specification Meaning Job description is the written document in which all the information regarding a particular job including role, responsibilities and duties is summarized in a systematic manner.
human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position.
Job Description and Job Specification
With the help of job analysis, two main documents are prepared namely, job description and job specification. Job Description differs from job specification, in the sense that the former is a statement that explains the essential needs of a job whereas the latter is a statement which states the least qualifications, required in the job holder for the performance of a particular job. These are an integral part of HRM because it is required for every single position of the organisation, whether it is a finance manager, HR manager, production manager, marketing manager or any other job of low echelon.
Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The information thus collected is analyzed, and the facts about the nature of job working conditions and qualities in an employee can be easily known. Job analysis defines the jobs within the organization and the behaviors necessary to perform these jobs.
Job Analysis is a primary tool to collect job-related data.
Key Differences Between Job Description and Job Specification
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